Brian C. Sayers

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Asthma is characterized by a T helper type 2 phenotype and by chronic allergen-induced airway inflammation (AAI). Environmental exposure to air pollution ultrafine particles (i.e., nanoparticles) exacerbates AAI, and a concern is possible exacerbation posed by engineered nanoparticles generated by emerging nanotechnologies. Signal transducer and activator(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are engineered graphene cylinders with numerous applications in engineering, electronics and medicine. However, CNTs cause inflammation and fibrosis in the rodent lung, suggesting a potential human health risk. We hypothesized that multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) induce two key inflammatory enzymes in macrophages, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)(More)
The nanotechnology revolution offers enormous societal and economic benefits for innovation in the fields of engineering, electronics, and medicine. Nevertheless, evidence from rodent studies show that biopersistent engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) stimulate immune, inflammatory, and fibroproliferative responses in the lung, suggesting possible risks for(More)
The emergence of nanotechnology has produced a multitude of engineered nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and concerns have been raised about their effects on human health, especially for susceptible populations such as individuals with asthma. Multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) have been shown to exacerbate ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway remodeling in(More)
BACKGROUND Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) represent a human health risk as mice exposed by inhalation display pulmonary fibrosis. Production of IL-1β via inflammasome activation is a mechanism of MWCNT-induced acute inflammation and has been implicated in chronic fibrogenesis. Mice sensitized to allergens have elevated T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines,(More)
Nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) are increasingly used in a variety of industrial applications, including the manufacturing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). While occupational nickel exposure is a known cause of pulmonary alveolitis, fibrosis, and cancer, the health risks of NiNPs are not well understood, especially in susceptible individuals such as(More)
Pleural diseases (fibrosis and mesothelioma) are a major concern for individuals exposed by inhalation to certain types of particles, metals, and fibers. Increasing attention has focused on the possibility that certain types of engineered nanoparticles (NPs), especially those containing nickel, might also pose a risk for pleural diseases. Platelet-derived(More)
C60 fullerene (C60), or buckminsterfullerene, is a spherical arrangement of 60 carbon atoms, having a diameter of approximately 1 nm, and is produced naturally as a by-product of combustion. Due to its small size, C60 has attracted much attention for use in a variety of applications; however, insufficient information is available regarding its toxicological(More)
C60 fullerenes (C60) are spherical structures consisting of 60 carbon atoms that are generated via combustion from both natural and anthropogenic sources. C60 are also synthesized intentionally for industrial applications. Individual C60 structures have an approximate diameter of 1nm; however, C60 readily forms aggregates and typically exist as larger(More)
BACKGROUND The National Toxicology Program (NTP) performed short-term toxicity studies of tetra- and pentavalent vanadium compounds, vanadyl sulfate and sodium metavanadate, respectively. Due to widespread human exposure and a lack of chronic toxicity data, there is concern for human health following oral exposure to soluble vanadium compounds. OBJECTIVES(More)
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