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1. We examined the fitness consequences of pollen limitation in the valley oak (Quercus lobata Neé, Fagaceae), a wind-pollinated, predominantly outcrossing tree endemic to California, by examining the relationship between within-year phenology and acorn production over an 8 year period. 2. We predicted that pollen limitation should result in trees flowering(More)
Life-history traits interact in important ways. Relatively few studies, however, have explored the relationships between life-history traits in long-lived taxa such as trees. We examined patterns of energy allocation to components of reproduction and growth in three species of California oaks (Quercus spp.) using a combination of annual acorn censuses,(More)
Phenology is the timing of life cycle events of an organism. Alterations in phenology can have profound effects on individual fitness, population growth, and community dynamics. Recent changes in climate have altered the phenology of many organisms, which may result in selection to shift phenological traits. Understanding the relationship between local(More)
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