Brian Burchell

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This review represents an update of the nomenclature system for the UDP glucuronosyltransferase gene superfamily, which is based on divergent evolution. Since the previous review in 1991, sequences of many related UDP glycosyltransferases from lower organisms have appeared in the database, which expand our database considerably. At latest count, in animals,(More)
Several novel UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes, mainly UDP glucuronosyltransferases, have been identified in the human, mouse and rat genomes and in other mammalian species. This review provides an update of the UGT nomenclature to include these new genes and prevent the confusion that arises when the same gene is given different names. The new genes are(More)
The glucuronidation of a number of commonly used hepatic uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase drug substrates has been studied in human tissue microsomes. Prediction of in vivo hepatic drug glucuronidation from liver microsomal data yielded a consistent 10-fold under-prediction. Consideration of protein binding was observed to be pivotal when(More)
A cloned human bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) stably expressed in Chinese hamster V79 cells was used to assess the substrate specificity of the enzyme. The catalytic potential (Vmax/Km(bilirubin) of the enzyme with UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) was 2-fold and 10-fold greater than that for UDP-xylose and UDP-glucose respectively. The formation of(More)
The in vitro glucuronidation of a range of structurally diverse chemicals has been studied in hepatic and renal microsomes from human donors and the beagle dog. These studies were undertaken to improve on the limited knowledge of glucuronidation by the dog and to assess its suitability as a model species for pharmacokinetic studies. In general, the(More)
Cellular export of cyclic nucleotides has been observed in various tissues and may represent an elimination pathway for these signaling molecules, in addition to degradation by phosphodiesterases. In the present study we provide evidence that this export is mediated by the multidrug resistance protein isoform MRP5 (gene symbol ABCC5). The transport function(More)
The polymorphic human CYP2D6 has been co-expressed with human NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase in Escherichia coli in order to generate a functional recombinant monooxygenase system for the study of xenobiotic metabolism. The two cDNAs were co-expressed from separate, compatible plasmids with different antibiotic selection markers. The CYP2D6 could be(More)
BACKGROUND The genetic basis of Gilbert's syndrome is ill-defined. This common mild hyperbilirubinaemia sometimes presents as an intermittent jaundice. A reduced hepatic bilirubin UPD- glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is associated with this syndrome. We have examined variation in the gene encoding the UGT1*1 enzyme and serum bilirubin levels in a Scottish(More)
Valproic acid glucuronidation kinetics were carried our with three human UGT isoforms: UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 as well as human liver and kidney microsomes. The glucuronidation of valproic acid was typified by high K(m) values with microsomes and expressed UGTs (2.3-5.2mM). The ability of valproic acid to interact with the glucuronidation of drugs,(More)
The COMT inhibitors entacapone and tolcapone are rapidly metabolized in vivo, mainly by glucuronidation. In this work, the main UGT isoforms responsible for their glucuronidation in vitro were characterized by using a subset of representative cloned and expressed human UGT isoforms. Entacapone in particular was seen to be an exceptionally good substrate for(More)