Learn More
Withdrawal anxiety is a significant factor contributing to continued alcohol abuse in alcoholics. This anxiety is long-lasting, can manifest well after the overt physical symptoms of withdrawal, and is frequently associated with relapse in recovering alcoholics. The neurobiological mechanisms governing these withdrawal-associated increases in anxiety are(More)
Norepinephrine contributes to antinociceptive, sedative, and sympatholytic responses in vivo, and alpha2 adrenergic receptor (alpha2AR) agonists are used clinically to mimic these effects. Lack of subtype-specific agonists has prevented elucidation of the role that each alpha2AR subtype (alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpha2C) plays in these central effects. Here we(More)
Withdrawal anxiety after chronic alcohol is likely to contribute to drug seeking and relapse in alcoholics. The brain regions regulating fear/anxiety behaviors, especially neurotransmitter systems with acute ethanol sensitivity, are potential targets for chronic ethanol-induced adaptations. We have therefore examined N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors(More)
BACKGROUND Postweaning social isolation in rats produces profound and long-lasting cognitive and behavioral deficits in adult animals. Importantly, this housing manipulation alters sensitivity to a number of drugs of abuse including ethanol. However, most studies with ethanol have utilized continuous or limited home-cage access to examine interactions(More)
Although alcoholism is a worldwide problem resulting in millions of deaths, only a small percentage of alcohol users become addicted. The specific neural substrates responsible for individual differences in vulnerability to alcohol addiction are not known. In this study, we used rodent models to study behavioral and synaptic correlates related to individual(More)
The anti-hypertensive drug ifenprodil is known to interact potently with the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor as well as a number of other second messenger-linked receptors. In addition to these properties, ifenprodil has been shown to prevent glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity via non-competitive antagonism of NMDA receptors [Legendre and Westbrook (1991) Molec.(More)
Existing data strongly suggest that alcohol affects dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the brain. However, many questions remain about the effects of alcohol on the delicate equilibrium between such neurochemical processes as DA release and uptake. Dysregulation of these processes in the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems after chronic alcohol ingestion(More)
1. The pharmacology of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) that mediates synaptic depression at corticostriatal synapses was investigated with the use of field potential and whole cell patch-clamp recording from striatal slices and whole cell recordings from isolated striatal neurons. 2. The mGluR2,3-selective agonists(More)
Central among the brain regions that regulate fear/anxiety behaviors is the lateral/basolateral amygdala (BLA). BLA output is tightly controlled by the relative activity of two populations of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, local feedback cells distributed throughout the nucleus, and feedforward cells found along the lateral paracapsular border of this(More)
BACKGROUND Rodent studies have demonstrated that adolescent social isolation results in many behavioral perturbations, including increases in anxiety-like behaviors. Socially isolated (SI) rats have also been shown to self-administer greater amounts ethanol (EtOH) in some, but not all, studies. Here, we tested whether juvenile social isolation increases(More)