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Norepinephrine contributes to antinociceptive, sedative, and sympatholytic responses in vivo, and alpha2 adrenergic receptor (alpha2AR) agonists are used clinically to mimic these effects. Lack of subtype-specific agonists has prevented elucidation of the role that each alpha2AR subtype (alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpha2C) plays in these central effects. Here we(More)
Withdrawal anxiety after chronic alcohol is likely to contribute to drug seeking and relapse in alcoholics. The brain regions regulating fear/anxiety behaviors, especially neurotransmitter systems with acute ethanol sensitivity, are potential targets for chronic ethanol-induced adaptations. We have therefore examined N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors(More)
In neonatal rats, strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors are widely expressed in the spinal cord, brainstem and forebrain. During development, these 'neonatal' receptors are replaced by an adult isoform, the expression of which becomes restricted primarily to brain stem and spinal cord. Unlike most forebrain regions, functional strychnine-sensitive glycine(More)
1. The pharmacology of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) that mediates synaptic depression at corticostriatal synapses was investigated with the use of field potential and whole cell patch-clamp recording from striatal slices and whole cell recordings from isolated striatal neurons. 2. The mGluR2,3-selective agonists(More)
Withdrawal anxiety is a significant factor contributing to continued alcohol abuse in alcoholics. This anxiety is long-lasting, can manifest well after the overt physical symptoms of withdrawal, and is frequently associated with relapse in recovering alcoholics. The neurobiological mechanisms governing these withdrawal-associated increases in anxiety are(More)
BACKGROUND Postweaning social isolation in rats produces profound and long-lasting cognitive and behavioral deficits in adult animals. Importantly, this housing manipulation alters sensitivity to a number of drugs of abuse including ethanol. However, most studies with ethanol have utilized continuous or limited home-cage access to examine interactions(More)
Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors are expressed in many adult forebrain regions, yet the biological function of these receptors outside the spinal cord/brainstem is poorly understood. We have recently shown that rat lateral/basolateral amygdala neurons express strychnine-sensitive glycine-gated currents whose pharmacological and molecular(More)
RATIONALE Existing data strongly suggest that alcohol affects dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the brain. However, many questions remain about the effects of alcohol on the delicate equilibrium between such neurochemical processes as DA release and uptake. Dysregulation of these processes in the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems after chronic alcohol(More)
Although alcoholism is a worldwide problem resulting in millions of deaths, only a small percentage of alcohol users become addicted. The specific neural substrates responsible for individual differences in vulnerability to alcohol addiction are not known. In this study, we used rodent models to study behavioral and synaptic correlates related to individual(More)