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Blood flow in the brain is regulated by neurons and astrocytes. Knowledge of how these cells control blood flow is crucial for understanding how neural computation is powered, for interpreting functional imaging scans of brains, and for developing treatments for neurological disorders. It is now recognized that neurotransmitter-mediated signalling has a key(More)
Calcium signalling in astrocytes couples changes in neural activity to alterations in cerebral blood flow by eliciting vasoconstriction or vasodilation of arterioles. However, the mechanism for how these opposite astrocyte influences provide appropriate changes in vessel tone within an environment that has dynamic metabolic requirements remains unclear.(More)
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is coupled to neuronal activity and is imaged in vivo to map brain activation. CBF is also modified by afferent projection fibres that release vasoactive neurotransmitters in the perivascular region, principally on the astrocyte endfeet that outline cerebral blood vessels. However, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of(More)
The "toxin-resistant" R-type Ca2+ channels are expressed widely in the CNS and distributed mainly in apical dendrites and spines. They play important roles in regulating signal transduction and intrinsic properties of neurons, but the modulation of these channels in the mammalian CNS has not been studied. In this study we used whole-cell patch-clamp(More)
Neuronal excitotoxicity during stroke is caused by activation of unidentified large-conductance channels, leading to swelling and calcium dysregulation. We show that ischemic-like conditions [O(2)/glucose deprivation (OGD)] open hemichannels, or half gap junctions, in neurons. Hemichannel opening was indicated by a large linear current and flux across the(More)
Imaging analysis techniques were used to examine changes in the intrinsic optical properties in hippocampal brain slices that occurred during synaptic activity evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation in CA1. Repetitive synaptic activity was associated with an increase in light transmission in the synaptic region in stratum radiatum. The effect was seen at(More)
P2X(7) receptor subunits form homomeric ATP-gated, calcium-permeable cation channels. In this study, we used Western blots and immunocytochemistry to demonstrate that P2X(7) receptors are abundant on presynaptic terminals of mossy fiber synapses in the rat hippocampus. P2X(7)-immunoreactive protein was detected using a specific P2X(7) antibody in Western(More)
Pannexin-1 (Px1) is expressed at postsynaptic sites in pyramidal neurons, suggesting that these hemichannels contribute to dendritic signals associated with synaptic function. We found that, in pyramidal neurons, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation induced a secondary prolonged current and dye flux that were blocked with a specific inhibitory(More)
Intracellular recordings from pairs of neurons in slices of rat hippocampus directly demonstrated electronic coupling between CA3 pyramidal cells. When two neurons were impaled simultaneously (as verified by subsequent double staining with horseradish peroxidase), current pulses injected into one cell caused voltage changes in other cells. These(More)
Cholinergic stimulation of the hippocampal formation results in excitation and/or seizure. We report here, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in the hippocampal slice (34-35 degrees C), a cholinergic-dependent slow afterdepolarization (sADP) and long-lasting plateau potential (PP). In the presence of 20 microM carbachol, action potential firing evoked(More)