Brian A Irving

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PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator induced by exercise that gives muscle many of the best known adaptations to endurance-type exercise but has no effects on muscle strength or hypertrophy. We have identified a form of PGC-1α (PGC-1α4) that results from alternative promoter usage and splicing of the primary transcript. PGC-1α4 is highly expressed in(More)
BACKGROUND About 60% of patients with type 2 diabetes achieve remission after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. No accurate method is available to preoperatively predict the probability of remission. Our goal was to develop a way to predict probability of diabetes remission after RYGB surgery on the basis of preoperative clinical criteria. METHODS(More)
UNLABELLED The metabolic syndrome is a complex clustering of metabolic defects associated with physical inactivity, abdominal adiposity, and aging. PURPOSE To examine the effects of exercise training intensity on abdominal visceral fat (AVF) and body composition in obese women with the metabolic syndrome. METHODS Twenty-seven middle-aged obese women(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes has become a global epidemic, and Asian Indians have a higher susceptibility to diabetes than Europeans. We investigated whether Indians had any metabolic differences compared with Northern European Americans that may render them more susceptible to diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 13 diabetic Indians, 13(More)
BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by a hyperandrogenic state and frequently develops skeletal muscle insulin resistance. We determined whether testosterone adversely affects insulin action by increasing serine phosphorylation of IRS-1(636/639) in differentiated rat skeletal muscle myotubes. The phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and(More)
Acute aerobic exercise increases reactive oxygen species and could potentially damage proteins, but exercise training (ET) enhances mitochondrial respiration irrespective of age. Here, we report a differential impact of ET on protein quality in young and older participants. Using mass spectrometry we measured oxidative damage to skeletal muscle proteins(More)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been reported to be inversely associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, independent of body weight. However, the confounding effect of physical activity on the association between CRF and VAT remains inadequately addressed. On the basis of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)), 143 sedentary, overweight(More)
OBJECTIVE Reductions in insulin sensitivity in conjunction with muscle mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported to occur in many conditions including aging. The objective was to determine whether insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction are directly related to chronological age or are related to age-related changes in body composition. (More)
OBJECTIVE To determine biological mechanisms involved in posttransplantation diabetes mellitus caused by the immunosuppressant tacrolimus (FK506). METHODS INS-1 cells and isolated rat islets were incubated with vehicle or FK506 and harvested at 24-hr intervals. Cells were assessed for viability, apoptosis, proliferation, cell insulin secretion, and(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the VmaxST portable metabolic measurement system. Forty-five healthy adults (age = 25.7 +/- 5.9 yr; height = 171.8 +/- 9.1 cm; weight = 69.6 +/- 12.8 kg; VO2peak) = 40.7 ml/kg/min; percent fat = 21.7 +/- 11.0) performed two separate and identical exercise routines on different days consisting of(More)