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Fitness and education may protect against cognitive impairments in aging. They may also counteract age-related structural changes within the brain. Here we analyzed volumetric differences in cerebrospinal fluid and gray and white matter, along with neuropsychological data, in adults differing in age, fitness, and education. Cognitive performance was(More)
Brain aging is characterized by changes in both hemodynamic and neuronal responses, which may be influenced by the cardiorespiratory fitness of the individual. To investigate the relationship between neuronal and hemodynamic changes, we studied the brain activity elicited by visual stimulation (checkerboard reversals at different frequencies) in younger(More)
Neuroimaging data emphasize that older adults often show greater extent of brain activation than younger adults for similar objective levels of difficulty. A possible interpretation of this finding is that older adults need to recruit neuronal resources at lower loads than younger adults, leaving no resources for higher loads, and thus leading to(More)
Fast optical signals can be used to study the time course of neuronal activity in localized cortical areas. The first report of such signals [Gratton, G., Corballis, P. M., Cho, E., Fabiani, M., Hood, D., 1995a. Shades of gray matter: Noninvasive optical images of human brain responses during visual stimulation. Psychophysiol, 32, 505-509.] was based on(More)
Prospective memory (PM) includes the encoding and maintenance of an intention, and the retrieval and execution of this intention at the proper moment in the future. The present study expands upon previous behavioral, electrophysiological, and functional work by examining the association between grey matter volume and PM. Estimates of grey matter volume in(More)
There is a growing emphasis on examining preclinical levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology in the absence of cognitive impairment. Previous work examining biomarkers has focused almost exclusively on memory, although there is mounting evidence that attention also declines early in disease progression. In the current experiment, 2 attentional(More)
The hippocampus is often treated as a uniform structure, but possesses differential projections to surrounding cortex along its longitudinal axis. This heterogeneity could create varied susceptibility to pathological influences, potentially leading to non-uniform volumetric associations with advancing age and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous examinations(More)
Age differences in the strategies that individuals spontaneously use to learn new information have been shown to contribute to age differences in episodic memory. We investigated the role of prefrontal structure in observed age effects on self-initiated use of memory strategies. The relationships among age, prefrontal regional gray matter volumes, and(More)
Relatively high frequency activity (>4Hz) carries important information about the state of the brain or its response to high frequency events. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is commonly used to study these changes because it possesses high temporal resolution and a good signal-to-noise ratio. However, it provides limited spatial information. Non-invasive(More)
Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain's atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial(More)