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Differential measurements of elliptic flow (v2) for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200 GeV are used to test and validate predictions from perfect fluid hydrodynamics for scaling of v2 with eccentricity, system size, and transverse kinetic energy (KE T). For KE T identical with mT-m up to approximately 1 GeV the scaling is compatible with(More)
To develop a human model for measuring the effect of intramuscularly injected botulinum toxin, we injected both extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) muscles in 13 healthy volunteers with seven varying doses of botulinum toxin type A. We measured, pre- and postinjection, EDB M-wave amplitude, area, and mean rectified voltage (MRV) (obtained during maximal(More)
Despite the clinical potential of botulinum toxin type B (BTXB) for treating focal dystonia, hemifacial spasm, and other movement disorders, particularly in those resistant to botulinum toxin type A (BTXA), no objective human data exist to compare the muscle paralysis resulting from these two botulinum toxin subtypes. To objectively compare the human muscle(More)
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) (Botox, Allergan, Irvine, CA) labeling recommends its use within 4 hours of reconstitution. Since BTX-A is available only in 100-unit vials, a substantial quantity is often discarded. Using eight volunteers, we measured the percent decline in extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) M-wave amplitude (percent paralysis) following(More)
A number of studies have found that ant colonies vary in many colony-level phenotypes, including the level of aggression towards non-nestmates. The extent of a colony’s aggression and defense of the nest in response to attacks by predators is likely to affect its survival and reproduction, but the degree to which colonies vary in their defensive response is(More)
Back-to-back hadron pair yields in d+Au and p+p collisions at √s(NN)=200 GeV were measured with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Rapidity separated hadron pairs were detected with the trigger hadron at pseudorapidity |η|<0.35 and the associated hadron at forward rapidity (deuteron direction, 3.0<η<3.8). Pairs were also detected(More)
The double helicity asymmetry in neutral pion production for pT=1 to 12 GeV/c was measured with the PHENIX experiment to access the gluon-spin contribution, DeltaG, to the proton spin. Measured asymmetries are consistent with zero, and at a theory scale of micro2=4 GeV2 a next to leading order QCD analysis gives DeltaG[0.02,0.3]=0.2, with a constraint of(More)
Full jet reconstruction in relativistic heavy ion collisions provides new and unique insights to the physics of parton energy loss. Because of the large underlying event multiplicity in A+A collisions, random and correlated fluctuations in the background can result in the reconstruction of fake jets. These fake jets must be identified and rejected to obtain(More)
Transverse single-spin asymmetries to probe the transverse-spin structure of the proton have been measured for neutral pions and nonidentified charged hadrons from polarized proton-proton collisions at midrapidity and square root(s) = 200 GeV. The data cover a transverse momentum (pT) range 1.0-5.0 GeV/c for neutral pions and 0.5-5.0 GeV/c for charged(More)
Transverse momentum spectra of neutral pions in the range 1<p(T)<10 GeV/c have been measured at midrapidity by the PHENIX experiment at BNL RHIC in Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV. The pi(0) multiplicity in central reactions is significantly below the yields measured at the same sqrt[s(NN)] in peripheral Au+Au and p+p reactions scaled by the number(More)