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Significant endeavor has been applied to identify functional therapeutic targets in glioblastoma (GBM) to halt the growth of this aggressive cancer. We show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA3 is frequently overexpressed in GBM and, in particular, in the most aggressive mesenchymal subtype. Importantly, EphA3 is highly expressed on the tumor-initiating(More)
Like all cancers, brain tumors require a continuous source of energy and molecular resources for new cell production. In normal brain, glucose is an essential neuronal fuel, but the blood-brain barrier limits its delivery. We now report that nutrient restriction contributes to tumor progression by enriching for brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) owing to(More)
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) is well documented as an inhibitor of the extracellular serine proteinase urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and is expressed in activated monocytes and macrophages, differentiating keratinocytes, and many tumors. Here we show that PAI-2 has a novel intracellular function as a retinoblastoma protein(More)
Epigenetic mechanisms are essential in regulating neural progenitor cell self-renewal, with the chromatin-modifying protein Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) emerging as a central player in promoting progenitor cell self-renewal during cortical development. Despite this, how Ezh2 is itself regulated remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the(More)
Glioblastoma is deemed the most malignant form of brain tumour, particularly due to its resistance to conventional treatments. A small surviving group of aberrant stem cells termed glioma initiation cells (GICs) that escape surgical debulking are suggested to be the cause of this resistance. Relatively quiescent in nature, GICs are capable of driving tumour(More)
Glioma is the most common adult primary brain tumor. Its most malignant form, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is almost invariably fatal, due in part to the intrinsic resistance of GBM to radiation- and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. We analyzed B-cell leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) anti-apoptotic proteins in GBM and found myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) to be the(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has nearly uniformly fatal with a median survival of less than 2 years. While there have not been any novel anti-GBM therapeutics approved for many years, there has been the gradual accumulation of clinical data suggesting that the widely used anti-convulsant agent, valproic acid (VPA) may significantly prolong survival in GBM(More)
An estimated 25%-40% of infertile men have idiopathic infertility associated with deficient sperm numbers and quality. Here, we identify the membrane-anchored serine protease PRSS21, also known as testisin, to be a novel proteolytic factor that directs epididymal sperm cell maturation and sperm-fertilizing ability. PRSS21-deficient spermatozoa show(More)
Studies in cell culture and mouse models of cancer have indicated that the soluble sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) promotes cancer cell proliferation, survival, invasiveness, and tumor angiogenesis. In contrast, its metabolic precursor ceramide is prodifferentiative and proapoptotic. To determine whether sphingolipid balance plays a(More)
INTRODUCTION Accurate knowledge of O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter subtype in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is important for treatment. However, this test is not always available. Pre-operative diffusion MRI (dMRI) can be used to probe tumour biology using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC); however, its ability to act as(More)