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The use of biological effects tools offer enormous potential to meet the challenges outlined by the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) whereby Member States are required to develop a robust set of tools for defining 11 qualitative descriptors of Good Environmental Status (GES), such as demonstrating that "Concentrations of(More)
Fish play host to viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases in addition to non-infectious conditions such as cancer. The National Marine Monitoring Programme (NMMP) provides information to the U.K. Government on the health status of marine fish stocks. An aspect of this work relates to the presence of tumors and other pathologies in the liver of the offshore(More)
The presence of genotoxic and potentially carcinogenic chemical contaminants in the estuarine and coastal marine environment is well documented. In this study, European flounder (Platichthys flesus) sampled from eight UK estuaries were analysed for hepatic DNA adducts, using the 32P-postlabelling assay and liver histopathology as part of an on going survey(More)
There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a greater hazard to aquatic organisms than previously demonstrated, due to their potential to cause photo-induced toxicity when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The consequences of photo-induced toxicity are reported here for embryo-larval stages(More)
The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of estuarine ecosystems has highlighted the need to deploy appropriate biological indices for these locations. Fish diseases and histopathology, with a broad range of causes, are increasingly being used as indicators of environmental stress since they provide a definite biological end-point of(More)
This review considers the potential of the Comet assay (or Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis, SCGE) to evaluate the environmental impact of genotoxins in aquatic environments. It focuses on in vivo and in situ studies that have been carried out in various marine and freshwater sentinel species, published in the last 5 years. A large number of the studies(More)
The acquisition and analysis of datasets including multi-level omics and physiology from non-model species, sampled from field populations, is a formidable challenge, which so far has prevented the application of systems biology approaches. If successful, these could contribute enormously to improving our understanding of how populations of living organisms(More)
AIM We report our initial experience using Botox-A injection to the salivary glands to control sialorrhoea. METHODS Eight adult patients with significant sialorrhoea were referred from an inpatient rehabilitation unit, GP referral, and internal medicine department. All subjects underwent bilateral submandibular gland injections and, in addition, one(More)
The monitoring of the impact of chemical pollutants upon marine ecosystems commonly employs a multi-biomarker approach. Functional genomics, using cDNA microarrays, allows for a comprehensive view of how an organism is responding to an exposure, with respect to changes in gene expression. Differentially expressed mRNAs were first isolated from livers of(More)
Interactions between epigenome and the environment in biology and in disease are of fundamental importance. The incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in flatfish exceeds 20% in some environments forming a unique opportunity to study environmental tumorigenesis of general relevance to cancer in humans. We report the novel finding of marked DNA methylation and(More)