Brett M Baker

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BACKGROUND Spontaneous control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been documented in a minority of HIV-infected individuals. The mechanisms behind this outcome remain largely unknown, and a better understanding of them will likely influence future vaccine strategies. METHODS HIV-specific T cell and antibody responses as well as host(More)
Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
In progressive viral infection, antiviral T cell function is impaired by poorly understood mechanisms. Here we report that the inhibitory immunoregulatory receptor CTLA-4 was selectively upregulated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD4(+) T cells but not CD8(+) T cells in all categories of HIV-infected subjects evaluated, with the exception of(More)
During acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, early host cellular immune responses drive viral evolution. The rates and extent of these mutations, however, remain incompletely characterized. In a cohort of 98 individuals newly infected with HIV-1 subtype B, we longitudinally characterized the rates and extent of HLA-mediated escape and(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) elite controllers (EC) maintain viremia below the limit of commercial assay detection (<50 RNA copies/ml) in the absence of antiviral therapy, but the mechanisms of control remain unclear. HLA-B57 and the closely related allele B*5801 are particularly associated with enhanced control and recognize the same(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) elite controllers are able to control virus replication to levels below the limits of detection by commercial assays, but the actual level of viremia in these individuals is not well defined. Here, we quantify plasma HIV-1 RNA in elite controllers and correlate this with specific immunologic parameters.(More)
BACKGROUND. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) elite controllers are able to control infection with HIV-1 spontaneously to undetectable levels in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, but the mechanisms leading to this phenotype are poorly understood. Although low frequencies of HIV-infected peripheral CD4(+) T cells have been reported in this group, it(More)
Despite reports of viral genetic defects in persons who control human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the absence of antiviral therapy, the extent to which such defects contribute to the long-term containment of viremia is not known. Most previous studies examining for such defects have involved small numbers of subjects, primarily focused on(More)
Defining the antiviral efficacy of CD8 T cells is important for immunogen design, and yet most current assays do not measure the ability of responses to neutralize infectious virus. Here we show that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) clones and cell lines derived from infected persons and targeting diverse epitopes(More)
BACKGROUND 'Elite controllers' are rare HIV-infected individuals who are able to spontaneously control HIV replication without medication, maintaining viral loads that are consistently below the limits of detection by currently available commercial assays. OBJECTIVE To examine studies of elite controllers that may elucidate mechanisms of HIV immune(More)