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DNA polymerases catalyze template-dependent genome replication. The assembly of a high affinity ternary complex between these enzymes, the double strand-single strand junction of their DNA substrate, and the deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) complementary to the first template base in the polymerase active site is essential to this process. We present a(More)
DNA polymerases are molecular motors that catalyze template-dependent DNA replication, advancing along template DNA by one nucleotide with each catalytic cycle. Nanopore-based measurements have emerged as a single molecule technique for the study of these enzymes. Using the alpha-hemolysin nanopore, we determined the position of DNA templates bearing(More)
The human proteome has millions of protein variants due to alternative RNA splicing and post-translational modifications, and variants that are related to diseases are frequently present in minute concentrations. For DNA and RNA, low concentrations can be amplified using the polymerase chain reaction, but there is no such reaction for proteins. Therefore,(More)
4(5)-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1H-imidazole-2-carboxamide is a molecule that has multiple hydrogen bonding sites and a short flexible linker. When tethered to a pair of electrodes, it traps target molecules in a tunnel junction. Surprisingly large recognition-tunneling signals are generated for all naturally occurring DNA bases A, C, G, T and 5-methyl-cytosine.(More)
Nanopores were fabricated with an integrated microscale Pd electrode coated with either a hydrogen-bonding or hydrophobic monolayer. Bare pores, or those coated with octanethiol, translocated single-stranded DNA with times of a few microseconds per base. Pores functionalized with 4(5)-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1H-imidazole-2-carboxamide slowed average translocation(More)
Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is utilized to study the solution-solid interface formed between Au(111) and solutions of coronene in hexanoic, heptanoic, and octanoic acids. In all three cases adsorbed coronene is observed and lays flat on the metal surface. Heptanoic and hexanoic acid solutions produce a hexagonal symmetry monolayer. For the heptanoic(More)
Gold has been the metal of choice for research on molecular tunneling junctions, but it is incompatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor fabrication because it forms deep level traps in silicon. Palladium electrodes do not contaminate silicon, and also give higher tunnel current signals in the molecular tunnel junctions that we have studied.(More)
Translocation of DNA through a narrow, single-walled carbon nanotube can be accompanied by large increases in ion current, recently observed in contrast to the ion current blockade. We use molecular dynamics simulations to show that large electro-osmotic flow can be turned into a large net current via ion-selective filtering by a DNA molecule inside the(More)
The distance between electrodes in a tunnel junction cannot be determined from the external movement applied to the electrodes because of interfacial forces that distort the electrode geometry at the nanoscale. These distortions become particularly complex when molecules are present in the junction, as demonstrated here by measurements of the AC response of(More)
We present a novel application of active voltage control of DNA captured in a nanopore to regulate the amount of time the DNA is available to molecules in the bulk phase that bind to the DNA. In this work, the control method is used to measure hybridization between a single molecule of DNA captured in a nanopore and complementary oligonucleotides in the(More)
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