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This paper describes work being conducted by OC Robotics and Airbus to develop snake-arm robots to conduct assembly tasks within wing boxes – an area currently inaccessible for automation. The composite, single skin construction of aircraft structures presents new assembly challenges. Currently during box close-out it is necessary for aircraft fitters to(More)
Exposure to fungi, particularly in water damaged indoor environments, has been thought to exacerbate a number of adverse health effects, ranging from subjective symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive difficulties or memory loss to more definable diseases such as allergy, asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Understanding the role of fungal exposure in(More)
4,4'-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (herein 4,4'-MDI) is used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, coatings, adhesives and the like for a wide range of commercial products. Occupational exposure to MDI levels above current airborne exposure limits can elicit immune mediated hypersensitivity reactions such as occupational asthma in sensitive(More)
In this 31-year retrospective study, we examined the influence of meteorology on airborne Betula spp. (birch) pollen concentrations in Turku, Finland. The seasonal incidence of airborne birch pollen in Turku occurred over a brief period each year during spring (April 30 - May 31). Mean peak concentrations were restricted to May (May 5 to 13). Statistically(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza virus was used to characterize the efficacy of a cyclone-based, two-stage personal bioaerosol sampler for the collection and size fractionation of aerosolized viral particles. METHODS A Collison single-jet nebulizer was used to aerosolize the attenuated FluMist vaccine into a calm-air settling chamber. Viral particles were captured(More)
Inhalation of common indoor filamentous fungi has been associated with the induction or exacerbation of allergic respiratory disease. The understanding of fungal inhalation and allergic sensitization has significantly advanced with the use of small animal models, especially mouse models. Numerous studies have employed different animal exposure and(More)
Pulmonary exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus has been associated with morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. A. fumigatus conidia produce β-glucan, proteases, and other immunostimulatory factors upon germination. Murine models have shown that the ability of A. fumigatus to germinate at physiological temperature may be an(More)
BACKGROUND Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen responsible for a number of diseases characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations. During host colonization GAS-cell aggregates or microcolonies are observed in tissues. GAS biofilm, which is an in vitro equivalent of tissue microcolony, has only recently been studied and little(More)