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The products of plant disease resistance genes are postulated to recognize invading pathogens and rapidly trigger host defense responses. Here we describe isolation of the resistance gene N of tobacco that mediates resistance to the viral pathogen tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The N gene was isolated by transposon tagging using the maize Activator transposon.(More)
Recovery of ribosomal small subunit genes by assembly of short read community DNA sequence data generally fails, making taxonomic characterization difficult. Here, we solve this problem with a novel iterative method, based on the expectation maximization algorithm, that reconstructs full-length small subunit gene sequences and provides estimates of relative(More)
Novel, low-abundance microbial species can be easily overlooked in standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based surveys. We used community genomic data obtained without PCR or cultivation to reconstruct DNA fragments bearing unusual 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein-coding genes from organisms belonging to novel archaeal lineages. The organisms are(More)
Using genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods, we evaluated gene expression, identified key activities, and examined partitioning of metabolic functions in a natural acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial biofilm community. We detected 2033 proteins from the five most abundant species in the biofilm, including 48% of the predicted proteins from(More)
We analyzed near-complete population (composite) genomic sequences for coexisting acidophilic iron-oxidizing Leptospirillum group II and III bacteria (phylum Nitrospirae) and an extrachromosomal plasmid from a Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, CA, acid mine drainage biofilm. Community proteomic analysis of the genomically characterized sample and two other(More)
provides an excellent opportunity to study the chemical and biological controls on acid mine drainage ͑AMD͒ generation in situ, and to identify key factors controlling solution chemistry. Here we integrate four years of field-based geochemical data with 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and rRNA probe-based studies of microbial population structure,(More)
Plant breeders have used disease resistance genes (R genes) to control plant disease since the turn of the century. Molecular cloning of R genes that enable plants to resist a diverse range of pathogens has revealed that the proteins encoded by these genes have several features in common. These findings suggest that plants may have evolved common signal(More)
Analysis of viral and bacterial pathogenesis has revealed common themes in the ways in which plants and animals respond to pathogenic agents. Pathogenic bacteria use macromolecule delivery systems (types III and IV) to deliver microbial avirulence proteins and transfer DNA-protein complexes directly into plant cells. The molecular events that constitute(More)
BACKGROUND Analyses of DNA sequences from cultivated microorganisms have revealed genome-wide, taxa-specific nucleotide compositional characteristics, referred to as genome signatures. These signatures have far-reaching implications for understanding genome evolution and potential application in classification of metagenomic sequence fragments. However,(More)
The tree of life is one of the most important organizing principles in biology(1). Gene surveys suggest the existence of an enormous number of branches(2), but even an approximation of the full scale of the tree has remained elusive. Recent depictions of the tree of life have focused either on the nature of deep evolutionary relationships(3-5) or on the(More)