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We describe a phenotypic assay designed to detect excision of the maize controlling element Ac from a selectable marker gene, neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II). An NPT II gene which expresses kanamycin resistance in tobacco cells, and contains a unique restriction enzyme site in the untranslated leader region, was constructed. Ac, or a defective Ac(More)
The products of plant disease resistance genes are postulated to recognize invading pathogens and rapidly trigger host defense responses. Here we describe isolation of the resistance gene N of tobacco that mediates resistance to the viral pathogen tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The N gene was isolated by transposon tagging using the maize Activator transposon.(More)
The dissolution of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2), arsenopyrite (FeAsS), chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), sphalerite (ZnS), and marcasite (FeS2) yields hot, sulfuric acid-rich solutions that contain high concentrations of toxic metals. In locations where access of oxidants to sulfide mineral surfaces is increased by mining, the resulting acid mine drainage(More)
BACKGROUND Analyses of DNA sequences from cultivated microorganisms have revealed genome-wide, taxa-specific nucleotide compositional characteristics, referred to as genome signatures. These signatures have far-reaching implications for understanding genome evolution and potential application in classification of metagenomic sequence fragments. However,(More)
We have used the ability of Ac to transpose in tobacco to determine which Ac sequences are required for transposition, using a phenotypic assay for Ac excision from an NPTII gene in which excisions of Ac result in calli resistant to the antibiotic kanamycin (Baker et al., 1987). Here we show that deletion of the Ac DNA which encodes the untranslated leader(More)
Recovery of ribosomal small subunit genes by assembly of short read community DNA sequence data generally fails, making taxonomic characterization difficult. Here, we solve this problem with a novel iterative method, based on the expectation maximization algorithm, that reconstructs full-length small subunit gene sequences and provides estimates of relative(More)
We analyzed near-complete population (composite) genomic sequences for coexisting acidophilic iron-oxidizing Leptospirillum group II and III bacteria (phylum Nitrospirae) and an extrachromosomal plasmid from a Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, CA, acid mine drainage biofilm. Community proteomic analysis of the genomically characterized sample and two other(More)
provides an excellent opportunity to study the chemical and biological controls on acid mine drainage ͑AMD͒ generation in situ, and to identify key factors controlling solution chemistry. Here we integrate four years of field-based geochemical data with 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and rRNA probe-based studies of microbial population structure,(More)
Using genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods, we evaluated gene expression, identified key activities, and examined partitioning of metabolic functions in a natural acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial biofilm community. We detected 2033 proteins from the five most abundant species in the biofilm, including 48% of the predicted proteins from(More)
The N gene, a member of the Toll-IL-1 homology region-nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat region (LRR) class of plant resistance genes, encodes two transcripts, N(S) and N(L), via alternative splicing of the alternative exon present in the intron III. The N(S) transcript, predicted to encode the full-length N protein containing the Toll-IL-1(More)