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Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by microcephaly, immunodeficiency, and predisposition to hematopoietic malignancy. The clinical and cellular phenotypes of NBS substantially overlap those of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). NBS is caused by mutation of the NBS1 gene, which encodes a member of the Mre11(More)
Aneuploidy, an incorrect number of chromosomes, is the leading cause of miscarriages and mental retardation in humans and is a hallmark of cancer. We examined the effects of aneuploidy on primary mouse cells by generating a series of cell lines that carry an extra copy of one of four mouse chromosomes. In all four trisomic lines, proliferation was impaired(More)
The double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase from human cells is a 68 kd protein (p68 kinase) induced by interferon. On activation by dsRNA in the presence of ATP, the kinase becomes autophosphorylated and can catalyze the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eIF2, which leads to an inhibition of the initiation of protein synthesis. Here we(More)
Activation of 2-5A-dependent ribonuclease by 5'-phosphorylated, 2',5'-linked oligoadenylates, known as 2-5A, is one pathway of interferon action. Unaided uptake into HeLa cells of 2-5A linked to an antisense oligonucleotide resulted in the selective ablation of messenger RNA for the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase PKR. Similarly,(More)
Interferons (IFNs) are a family of multifunctional cytokines that activate transcription of subsets of genes. The gene products induced by IFNs are responsible for IFN antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory properties. To obtain a more comprehensive list and a better understanding of the genes regulated by IFNs, we compiled data from many(More)
Aneuploidy, an incorrect chromosome number, is a hallmark of cancer. Compounds that cause lethality in aneuploid, but not euploid, cells could therefore provide new cancer therapies. We have identified the energy stress-inducing agent AICAR, the protein folding inhibitor 17-AAG, and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine as exhibiting this property. AICAR(More)
The interferon (IFN)-induced double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated Ser/Thr protein kinase (PKR) plays a role in the antiviral and antiproliferative effects of IFN. PKR phosphorylates initiation factor eIF2alpha, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis, and also activates the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), by phosphorylating the(More)
Cell stress, viral infection, and translational inhibition increase the abundance of human Alu RNA, suggesting that the level of these transcripts is sensitive to the translational state of the cell. To determine whether Alu RNA functions in translational homeostasis, we investigated its role in the regulation of double-stranded RNA-activated kinase PKR. We(More)
PKR is a cellular serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) to regulate protein synthesis. PKR also plays a role in the regulation of transcription, programmed cell death and the cell cycle, processes which likely involve other substrates. In a yeast two-hybrid screen, we isolated human protein(More)
The cDNA encoding interferon-induced human double-stranded RNA-activated p68 kinase was expressed in murine NIH 3T3 cells by using the pcDNA1/neo vector. Several stable clones were selected which expressed either the wild-type kinase or an inactive mutant possessing a single amino acid substitution in the invariant lysine 296 in the catalytic domain II. The(More)