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Little is known about how cell shape is controlled. We are using the morphogenesis of trichomes (plant hairs) on the plant Arabidopsis thaliana as a model to study how cell shape is controlled. Wild-type Arabidopsis trichomes are large, single epidermal cells with a stalk and three or four branches, whereas in zwichel (zwi) mutants the trichomes have a(More)
BACKGROUND Prior calculations of the burden of disease from toxic exposures have not included estimates of the burden from toxic waste sites due to the absence of exposure data. OBJECTIVE We developed a disability-adjusted life year (DALY)-based estimate of the disease burden attributable to toxic waste sites. We focused on three low- and middle-income(More)
The time course of synthesis of snowshoe hare bunyavirus small (S)- and medium (M)-sized viral RNA (vRNA), viral cRNA (vcRNA), and mRNA species was analyzed by using single-stranded DNA probes representing the S- and M-coded gene products. In the presence of puromycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, the subgenomic S mRNA species were detected, but not(More)
Identification and systematic assessment of hazardous wastes sites in low and middle-income countries has lagged. Hazardous waste problems are especially severe in lower income Asian countries where environmental regulations are non-existent, nonspecific or poorly enforced. In these countries extensive unregulated industrial development has created waste(More)
The aim of the study was to assess different visual acuity tests in the age group 1 1/2-6 years in 105 children with assumed normal vision, visual impairment due to ocular disease or strabismus. Acuity tasks for young children can be divided into three subtypes according to the kind of stimulus used. For "detection acuity", the stimulus should be detected(More)
In the developing world, environmental chemical exposures due to hazardous waste sites are poorly documented. We describe the approach taken by the Blacksmith Institute's Toxic Sites Identification Program in documenting environmental chemical exposures due to hazardous waste sites globally, identifying sites of concern and quantifying pathways,(More)
In artisanal small-scale gold mining, mercury is used for gold-extraction, putting miners and nearby residents at risk of chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication (CMMVI). Burden of disease (BoD) analyses allow the estimation of the public health relevance of CMMVI, but until now there have been no specific CMMVI disability weights (DWs). The objective(More)
PURPOSE Methods for detecting subnormal vision early in life are needed to adequately diagnose the condition and begin treatment and rehabilitation. METHODS Forty-six children ages 1 month to 1 1/2 years with either assumed normal vision, visual impairment due to eye disease, or strabismus were examined with the following tests: Stycar rolling balls;(More)
BACKGROUND Although there has been success in reducing lead exposure with the phase-out of leaded gasoline, exposure to lead in Mexico continues to threaten the health of millions, much of which is from lead-based glazes used in pottery that leaches into food. OBJECTIVES An extensive historical review and analysis of available data on blood lead levels in(More)
Previous studies have evaluated associated health risks and human exposure pathways at mining sites. Others have provided estimates of the scale of the issue based in part on surveys. However, a global census of mining-related hazardous waste sites has been lacking. The Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) implemented by Blacksmith Institute (New York,(More)