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Direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve can be used to restore some degree of hearing to the profoundly deaf. Percepts due to electrical stimulation have characteristics corresponding approximately to the acoustic percepts of loudness, pitch, and timbre. To encode speech as a pattern of electrical stimulation, it is necessary to determine the(More)
Ordinate developed an automatic assessment of oral reading fluency that was administered to a large sample of American adults. Because fluent reading entails accuracy, the machine evaluations of oral reading accuracy were assessed. This paper reviews the methods and results of a study to assess accuracy and bias within a large-scale automatic assessment of(More)
Methods for rapidly assessing sequence-structure-function landscapes and developing conditional gene-regulatory devices are critical to our ability to manipulate and interface with biology. We describe a framework for engineering RNA devices from preexisting aptamers that exhibit ligand-responsive ribozyme tertiary interactions. Our methodology utilizes(More)
The general applicability of our tertiary interaction switching architecture relies on the ability to restore activity to a ribozyme that has one loop sequence modified by integration of an aptamer. Restoration of cleavage activity is accomplished through the selection of an appropriate opposite loop sequence that restores tertiary interactions and(More)
Skillful performance in a human language often involves a composite of elementary skills, such that language skills, cognitive skills, and social skills can be conflated in the judgement of a human listener. A new, computer-based method (PhonePass testing) provides an estimate of spoken language skills, relatively independent of the speaker's other social(More)
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