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The conformational change of a host protein, PrP(C), into a disease-associated isoform, PrP(Sc), appears to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and scrapie. However, the fundamental mechanism by which infectious prions are produced in neurons remains unknown. To investigate the mechanism of prion(More)
OBJECT Accurate discrimination between tumor and normal tissue is crucial for optimal tumor resection. Qualitative fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), synthesized endogenously following δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration, has been used for this purpose in high-grade glioma (HGG). The authors show that diagnostically significant but visually(More)
Reactive astrocytes display decreased glutamate transporters, such as GLT-1, and as a result synaptic glutamate clearance is impaired. In addition, these activated astrocytes are immunocompetent and release algesic mediators that can sensitize neurons in the spinal cord. Currently, we evaluated the effect of propentofylline (PPF), an experimental(More)
Most cancer cells are characterized by aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes. We have identified a clue to the mechanistic origins of aneuploidy through integrative genomic analyses of human tumors. A diverse range of tumor types were found to harbor deletions or inactivating mutations of STAG2, a gene encoding a subunit of the cohesin complex,(More)
Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells (CNS-SC) based on cell surface markers yields a highly purified stem cell population that can extensively expand in vitro and exhibit multilineage differentiation potential both in vitro and in vivo. The CNS-SC were isolated from fetal brain tissue using the cell surface markers CD133(+), CD34(-),(More)
The precise mechanism whereby continuous high-frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus ameliorates motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is unknown. We examined the effects of high-frequency stimulation of regions dorsal to and within the subthalamic nucleus on dopamine efflux in the striatum of urethane-anaesthetized rats using constant(More)
Postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA) is a rare and pathophysiologically ill-characterized cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, occurring within 30 days of a usually uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery. Its onset has been associated with the use of vasoactive medications, particularly ergot alkaloids. Other cases have occurred in the absence of these(More)
We have identified a point mutation in Npc1 that creates a novel mouse model (Npc1(nmf164)) of Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC) disease: a single nucleotide change (A to G at cDNA bp 3163) that results in an aspartate to glycine change at position 1005 (D1005G). This change is in the cysteine-rich luminal loop of the NPC1 protein and is highly similar to commonly(More)
Distinctive glioneuronal tumors arising within the cerebrum and displaying neuropil-like islands and tumor cells immunoreactive for neuronal and glial antigens have recently been described. We report a similar tumor in the cervico-thoracic region of the spinal cord in a 44-year-old woman that recurred 1 year later with dissemination to the lumbar dura and(More)
OBJECT The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between intraoperative fluorescence, features on MR imaging, and neuropathological parameters in 11 cases of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated using protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence-guided resection. METHODS In 11 patients with a newly diagnosed GBM,(More)