Brent E. Palmer

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The function of interleukin 37 (IL-37; formerly IL-1 family member 7) has remained elusive. Expression of IL-37 in macrophages or epithelial cells almost completely suppressed production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas the abundance of these cytokines increased with silencing of endogenous IL-37 in human blood cells. Anti-inflammatory cytokines were(More)
A number of emerging molecules and pathways have been implicated in mediating the T-cell exhaustion characteristic of chronic viral infection. Not all dysfunctional T cells express PD-1, nor are they all rescued by blockade of the PD-1/PD-1 ligand pathway. In this study, we characterize the expression of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are postulated to be involved in transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 to T cells and in stimulation of HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immunity. Blood DCs have been categorized as myeloid (mDC) and plasmacytoid (pDC) subsets, on the basis of differences in phenotype and function. Blood DC subset numbers and expression(More)
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with persistence in the majority of individuals. We demonstrate here that the inhibitory molecule programmed death-1 (PD-1) is significantly upregulated on total and HCV-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the peripheral blood and livers of patients with chronic infection compared to(More)
Understanding gut microbiota alterations associated with HIV infection and factors that drive these alterations may help explain gut-linked diseases prevalent with HIV. 16S rRNA sequencing of feces from HIV-infected individuals revealed that HIV infection is associated with highly characteristic gut community changes, and antiretroviral therapy does not(More)
OBJECTIVES Chromatin-associated repression is one mechanism that maintains HIV-1 latency. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) reverses this repression resulting in viral expression from quiescently infected cells. Clinical studies with the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) failed to substantially decrease the latent pool within resting CD4(+) cells.(More)
AIMS To determine the effect of condensed tannins in Calliandra calothyrsus (calliandra) on rumen microbial function. METHODS AND RESULTS Microbial populations, ruminal protein synthesis and fermentation end-products were measured in sheep fed roughage hay supplemented with calliandra (30%), with and without inclusions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to(More)
Several new immunodeficient mouse models for human cell engraftment have recently been introduced that include the Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-), NOD/SCID, NOD/SCIDγc(-/-) and NOD/SCIDβ2m(-/-) strains. Transplantation of these mice with CD34(+) human hematopoietic stem cells leads to prolonged engraftment, multilineage hematopoiesis and the capacity to generate human(More)
Similar to IL-1α and IL-33, IL-1 family member IL-37b translocates to the nucleus and is associated with suppression of innate and adaptive immunity. Here we demonstrate an extracellular function of the IL-37 precursor and a processed form. Recombinant IL-37 precursor reduced LPS-induced IL-6 by 50% (P < 0.001) in highly inflammatory human blood-derived M1(More)
RATIONALE Lung infections caused by opportunistic or virulent pathogens are a principal cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection. It is unknown whether HIV infection leads to changes in basal lung microflora, which may contribute to chronic pulmonary complications that increasingly are being recognized in individuals infected with HIV. OBJECTIVES(More)