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Acute pain and emotion are processed in two forebrain networks, and the cingulate cortex is involved in both. Although Brodmann's cingulate gyrus had two divisions and was not based on any functional criteria, functional imaging studies still use this model. However, recent cytoarchitectural studies of the cingulate gyrus support a four-region model, with(More)
Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a brain region that subserves cognition and motor control, but the mechanisms of these functions remain unknown. Human neuroimaging and monkey electrophysiology studies have provided valuable insights, but it has been difficult to link the two literatures. Based on monkey single-unit recordings, we hypothesized(More)
Human posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) form the posterior cingulate gyrus, however, monkey connection and human imaging studies suggest that PCC area 23 is not uniform and atlases mislocate RSC. We histologically assessed these regions in 6 postmortem cases, plotted a flat map, and characterized differences in dorsal (d) and(More)
A gulf exists between cingulate area designations in human neurocytology and those used in rodent brain atlases with a major underpinning of the former being midcingulate cortex (MCC). The present study used images extracted from the Franklin and Paxinos mouse atlas and Paxinos and Watson rat atlas to demonstrate areas comprising MCC and modifications of(More)
The structural and functional organization of the human cingulate cortex is an ongoing focus; however, human imaging studies continue to use the century-old Brodmann concept of a two region cingulate cortex. Recently, a four-region neurobiological model was proposed based on structural, circuitry, and functional imaging observations. It encompasses the(More)
BACKGROUND Although the mechanisms of short- and long-term potentiation of nociceptive-evoked responses are well known in the spinal cord, including central sensitization, there has been a growing body of information on such events in the cerebral cortex. In view of the importance of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in chronic pain conditions, this review(More)
Anterior cingulate cortex is comprised of perigenual and midcingulate regions based on cytology, imaging and connections. Its anterior (aMCC) and posterior (pMCC) parts and transition to posterior area 23 were evaluated in six human cingulate gyri with Nissl staining and immunoreactions for neuron-specific nuclear binding protein and intermediate(More)
Human functional imaging and neurocytology have produced important revisions to the organization of the cingulate gyrus and demonstrate four structure/function regions: anterior, midcingulate (MCC), posterior (PCC), and retrosplenial. This study evaluates the brain of a rhesus and 11 cynomolgus monkeys with Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry for(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Women have a higher prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and possible differences in response to treatment, suggesting sex-related differences in underlying pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to determine possible sex-related differences in brain responses to a visceral and a psychological stressor in IBS. METHODS(More)
Homologizing between human and nonhuman area 32 has been impaired since Brodmann said he could not homologize with certainty human area 32 to a specific cortical domain in other species. Human area 32 has four divisions, however, and two can be structurally homologized to nonhuman species with cytoarchitecture and receptor architecture: pregenual (p32) and(More)