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Assessments of anterior cingulate cortex in experimental animals and humans have led to unifying theories of its structural organization and contributions to mammalian behaviour. The anterior cingulate cortex forms a large region around the rostrum of the corpus callosum that is termed the anterior executive region. This region has numerous projections into(More)
Acute pain and emotion are processed in two forebrain networks, and the cingulate cortex is involved in both. Although Brodmann's cingulate gyrus had two divisions and was not based on any functional criteria, functional imaging studies still use this model. However, recent cytoarchitectural studies of the cingulate gyrus support a four-region model, with(More)
Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays critical roles in cognitive processing, but group-averaging techniques have generally been required to obtain significant dACC activation in functional neuroimaging studies. Development of a task that reliably and robustly activates dACC within individuals is needed to improve imaging studies of neuropsychiatric(More)
Cortical projections to subdivisions of the cingulate cortex in the rhesus monkey were analyzed with horseradish peroxidase and tritiated amino acid tracers. These projections were evaluated in terms of an expanded cytoarchitectural scheme in which areas 24 and 23 were divided into three ventrodorsal parts, i.e., areas 24a-c and 23a-c. Most cortical input(More)
The surface morphology and cytoarchitecture of human cingulate cortex was evaluated in the brains of 27 neurologically intact individuals. Variations in surface features included a single cingulate sulcus (CS) with or without segmentation or double parallel sulci with or without segmentation. The single CS was deeper (9.7 +/- 0.81 mm) than in cases with(More)
Human posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) form the posterior cingulate gyrus, however, monkey connection and human imaging studies suggest that PCC area 23 is not uniform and atlases mislocate RSC. We histologically assessed these regions in 6 postmortem cases, plotted a flat map, and characterized differences in dorsal (d) and(More)
The connections of rat cingulate cortex with visual, motor, and postsubicular cortices were investigated with retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques. In addition, connections between visual and the postsubicular (area 48) and parasubicular (area 49) cortices were evaluated with the same techniques. The following conclusions were drawn. Area 29(More)
The cingulate gyrus is a major part of the "anatomical limbic system" and, according to classic accounts, is involved in emotion. This view is oversimplified in light of recent clinical and experimental findings that cingulate cortex participates not only in emotion but also in sensory, motor, and cognitive processes. Anterior cingulate cortex, consisting(More)
The human anterior cingulate cortex is distinguished by the presence of an unusual cell type, a large spindle neuron in layer Vb. This cell has been noted numerous times in the historical literature but has not been studied with modern neuroanatomic techniques. For instance, details regarding the neuronal class to which these cells belong and regarding(More)