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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. METHODS In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and the other was HIV-1-negative; 54% of the subjects were from Africa, and 50% of infected(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus share the same route of transmission, and the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in patients infected with HIV is greater than it is in the general population. AIM To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C markers in a population of patients with HIV as well as the risk factors(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is indicated during tuberculosis treatment in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the timing for the initiation of ART when tuberculosis is diagnosed in patients with various levels of immune compromise is not known. METHODS We conducted an open-label, randomized study comparing(More)
BACKGROUND A cohort of 93 heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples with no prior antiretroviral use were identified in a large referral center from February 2000 to January 2006 in southern Brazil. METHODS Review of clinic records retrospectively identified 56 cases of untreated index cases whereas 37 couples were identified prospectively. Demographics,(More)
It has been suggested that exposure to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) apparatus induces antinociceptive effects in mice as measured by the tail-flick assay, which are not blocked by the opiate antagonist naltrexone. The present study performed on 3-month old male EPM-M1 albino mice (12-14 animals per group) was designed to assess a) if exposure limited to the(More)
BACKGROUND The safety and efficacy of adding antiretroviral drugs to standard zidovudine prophylaxis in infants of mothers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who did not receive antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) because of late identification are unclear. We evaluated three ART regimens in such infants. METHODS Within 48 hours after(More)
BACKGROUND Data describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of tenofovir in neonates are lacking. METHODS The HIV Prevention Trials Network 057 protocol was a phase 1, open-label study of the pharmacokinetics and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in HIV-infected women during labor and their infants during the first week of life with 4 dosing(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral regimens with simplified dosing and better safety are needed to maximize the efficiency of antiretroviral delivery in resource-limited settings. We investigated the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral regimens with once-daily compared to twice-daily dosing in diverse areas of the world. METHODS AND FINDINGS 1,571 HIV-1-infected(More)
BACKGROUND An interim analysis of data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial showed that antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevented more than 96% of genetically linked infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. ART was then offered to all patients with HIV-1 infection (index participants). The(More)
BACKGROUND The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial demonstrated that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from HIV-infected adults (index participants) to their HIV-uninfected sexual partners. We analyzed HIV from 38 index-partner pairs and 80 unrelated index participants(More)