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PREMISE OF THE STUDY The cyclotide kalata B1 is found in the leaves of Oldenlandia affinis and is a potent insecticidal and nematocidal molecule. This peptide is cleaved from a precursor protein, Oak1, and ligation of the N- and C-termini occurs to form a continuous peptide backbone. The subcellular location of the excision and cyclization reactions is(More)
Our knowledge of Photosystem II and the molecular mechanism of oxygen production are rapidly advancing. The time is now ripe to exploit this knowledge and use it as a blueprint for the development of light-driven catalysts, ultimately for the splitting of water into O2 and H2. In this article, we outline the background and our approach to this technological(More)
One important model for disease resistance is the Prf recognition complex of tomato, which responds to different bacterial effectors. Prf incorporates a protein kinase called Pto as its recognition domain that mimics effector virulence targets, and activates resistance after interaction with specific effectors. Recent findings show that this complex is(More)
Cyclotides are diverse plant backbone cyclized peptides that have attracted interest as pharmaceutical scaffolds, but fundamentals of their biosynthetic origin remain elusive. Backbone cyclization is a key enzyme-mediated step of cyclotide biosynthesis and confers a measure of stability on the resultant cyclotide. Furthermore, cyclization would be desirable(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Currently, plasma fractionation involves multiple processing steps using established methods such as ethanol precipitation and column chromatography. The known limitations associated with conventional purification techniques, combined with strict regulations on safety and high demand for particular plasma proteins, have resulted in(More)
This article attempts to address the molecular origin of Photosystem II (PSII), the central component in oxygenic photosynthesis. It discusses the possible evolution of the relevant cofactors needed for splitting water into molecular O2 with respect to the following functional domains in PSII: the reaction center (RC), the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), and(More)
Cyclization via head-to-tail linkage of the termini of a peptide chain occurs in only a small percentage of proteins, but engenders the resultant cyclic proteins with exceptional stability. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood and this review attempts to summarize what is known of the events that lead to cyclization. Cyclic proteins are found in(More)
Plant cyclotides are the largest family of gene-encoded cyclic proteins. They act as host defense molecules to protect plants and are promising candidates as insecticidal and nematocidal agents in agriculture. For this promise to be realized a greater understanding of the post-translational processing of these proteins is needed. Cyclotides are cleaved from(More)
Photosynthesis involves the conversion of light into chemical energy through a series of electron transfer reactions within membrane-bound pigment/protein complexes. The Photosystem II (PSII) complex in plants, algae and cyanobacteria catalyse the oxidation of water to molecular O2. The complexity of PSII has thus far limited attempts to chemically(More)
Transpeptidation reactions result in the formation of new peptide bonds and this can occur between two separate peptides or within the one peptide. These reactions are catalyzed by enzymes and when the N- and C-terminus of the one peptide are joined it results in the formation of cyclic proteins. Cyclization via head-to-tail linkage of the termini of a(More)