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A cloned pea chloroplast 16S rRNA gene promoter has been characterized in detail by use of a homologous in vitro transcription system that contains a highly purified chloroplast RNA polymerase. The in vivo and in vitro 16S rRNA transcriptional start site has been identified to be a T on the plus strand, 158 bases upstream of the mature 5' end of the gene.(More)
AG1343 ([3S-(3R*,4aR*,8aR*,2'S*,3'S*)]-2-[2' hydroxy-3'-phenylthiomethyl-4'-aza-5'-oxo-5'-(2''-methyl-3''-hydro xy-phenyl) pentyl]-decahydroiso-quinoline-3-N-t-butylcarboxamide methanesulfonic acid) is a selective, nonpeptidic inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease (Ki = 2 nM) that was discovered by protein structure-based drug design(More)
Current pharmacological agents for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection include drugs targeted against HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV protease. An understudied therapeutic target is HIV integrase, an essential enzyme that mediates integration of the HIV genome into the host chromosome. The dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs) and the dicaffeoyltartaric(More)
The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a multifunctional regulator for plant growth and reproduction. Here we report that the female gametophyte-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) LORELEI and the seedling-expressed LRE-like GPI-AP1 (LLG1) bind to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of FER and show that this(More)
A highly purified RNA polymerase preparation from pea chloroplasts has been shown to specifically transcribe the 16S rRNA gene in vitro using the recombinant pCB2-8 DNA as a template. The RNA polymerase has been found to show maximum activity and specificity with pea supercoiled rDNA as a template. At low concentrations of ribonucleoside triphosphates, the(More)
The X-ray crystal-structure-based design, synthesis, computational evaluation, and activity of a novel class of HIV protease inhibitors are described. The initial lead compounds 2 and 3 were designed by modeling replacement groups for the C-terminal Val-Val-OCH3 of a known hydroxyethylene inhibitor into the active site of the reported crystal structure of(More)
Pea chloroplast RNA polymerase has been obtained with about 2000-fold purification using DEAE-cellulose and phosphocellulose chromatography. The purified enzyme contained ten prominent polypeptides of 150, 130, 115, 110, 95, 85, 75, 48, 44 and 39 kDa and four other minor polypeptides of 90, 34, 32 and 27 kDa. Purification of this enzyme using chloroplast(More)
The design, synthesis, and crystallographic analysis of protein-inhibitor complexes is described for a novel series of nonpeptidic HIV protease (HIV Pr)inhibitors. Beginning with a cocrystal structure of a Phe-Pro peptidomimetic bound to the HIV Pr, design was initiated that resulted in the substituted 2-butanol compound 8 as the lead compound (Ki = 24.5(More)
UNLABELLED The alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV) encodes a single immediate early gene called IE180. The IE180 protein is a potent transcriptional activator of viral genes involved in DNA replication and RNA transcription. A PRV mutant with both copies of IE180 deleted was constructed 20 years ago (S. Yamada and M. Shimizu, Virology 199:366-375,(More)
A series of potent nonpeptide inhibitors of the HIV protease have been identified. Using the structure of compound 3 bound to the HIV protease, bis tertiary amide inhibitor 9 was designed and prepared. Compound 9 was found to be about 17 times more potent than 3, and the structure of the protein-ligand complex of 9 revealed the inhibitor binds in an(More)
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