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BACKGROUND Nitrous oxide is widely used in anesthesia, often administered at an inspired concentration around 70%. Although nitrous oxide interferes with vitamin B12, folate metabolism, and deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and prevents the use of high inspired oxygen concentrations, the consequences of these effects are unclear. METHODS Patients having(More)
BACKGROUND An accurate assessment of the prevalence of cognitive impairment in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is necessary if valid assumptions regarding cognitive change are to be made. Such an assessment requires the use of a healthy control group free of cardiovascular disease. METHODS In a retrospective(More)
A novel bivalent opioid tetrapeptide, biphalin (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-NH)2, was synthesized based on structure-activity relationships. The analgesic activity of biphalin was assessed in comparison to morphine in rats. Drugs were administered subcutaneously (s.c.), intravenously (i.v.) and intrathecally (i.t.). Tail flick and tail pinch were used as tests for(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine whether post-operative neurocognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs after ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND Ablation for AF is a highly effective strategy; however, the risk of transient ischemic attack and stroke is approximately 0.5% to 1%. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging studies report a 7%(More)
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid reduces the risk of bleeding among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, but it is unclear whether this leads to improved outcomes. Furthermore, there are concerns that tranexamic acid may have prothrombotic and proconvulsant effects. METHODS In a trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned patients who were(More)
Cognitive deterioration can reliably be measured after procedures requiring anesthesia and surgery. Cardiac surgery has had the spotlight because of the high reported incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in early studies, but such effects occur after other surgical procedures as well. "Early" postoperative cognitive dysfunction should be(More)
BACKGROUND Decreased cognitive function associated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery is common. These deficits may be similar to the cognitive dysfunction seen in the spectrum of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease, which are believed to result from the accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide in the brain. We measured cognition(More)
BACKGROUND Most patients with coronary artery disease receive aspirin for primary or secondary prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Aspirin poses a risk of bleeding in patients undergoing surgery, but it is unclear whether aspirin should be stopped before coronary artery surgery. METHODS We used a 2-by-2 factorial trial design to(More)
BACKGROUND Epidural block is widely used to manage major abdominal surgery and postoperative analgesia, but its risks and benefits are uncertain. We compared adverse outcomes in high-risk patients managed for major surgery with epidural block or alternative analgesic regimens with general anaesthesia in a multicentre randomised trial. METHODS 915 patients(More)