Learn More
A novel bivalent opioid tetrapeptide, biphalin (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-NH)2, was synthesized based on structure-activity relationships. The analgesic activity of biphalin was assessed in comparison to morphine in rats. Drugs were administered subcutaneously (s.c.), intravenously (i.v.) and intrathecally (i.t.). Tail flick and tail pinch were used as tests for(More)
BACKGROUND Epidural block is widely used to manage major abdominal surgery and postoperative analgesia, but its risks and benefits are uncertain. We compared adverse outcomes in high-risk patients managed for major surgery with epidural block or alternative analgesic regimens with general anaesthesia in a multicentre randomised trial. METHODS 915 patients(More)
BACKGROUND Nitrous oxide is commonly used in general anaesthesia but concerns exist that it might increase perioperative cardiovascular risk. We aimed to gather evidence to establish whether nitrous oxide affects perioperative cardiovascular risk. METHODS We did an international, randomised, assessor-blinded trial in patients aged at least 45 years with(More)
The occurrence of post-operative cognitive dysfunction is a distressing complication following surgery. In an effort to gain a more complete understanding of patients' cognitive recovery following surgical procedures common neuropsychological assessment tools have been adopted in a repeated measures design. It is widely regarded that this represents the(More)
The reliable change index (RCI) expresses change relative to its associated error, and is useful in the identification of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). This paper examines four common RCIs that each account for error in different ways. Three rules incorporate a constant correction for practice effects and are contrasted with the standard RCI(More)
A processed electroencephalogram (EEG) produced by the Lifescan monitor (Neurometrics), was compared to awake neurological assessment for detecting cerebral ischaemia in seventy patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy under cervical plexus block. Of the six patients demonstrating neurological signs on cross-clamping the carotid, five displayed(More)
To assess within a single rat strain individual variability of analgesic responses to sub-ED50 doses of receptor-selective opioids, we measured: 1) tail flick latency (TFL) responses after intrathecal (ith) injection of delta, mu, and kappa agonists administered serially; 2) TFL and tail pinch latencies (TPch) after intravenous (iv) mu and kappa agonists;(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, although of established utility in the diagnostic evaluation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are known to be sensitive to variation based on pre-analytical sample processing. We assessed whether gravity droplet collection versus syringe aspiration was another factor influencing CSF biomarker analyte concentrations and(More)
Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography has been used to detect microemboli in the middle cerebral artery during orthopedic surgery. We conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in orthopedic surgery to evaluate its status in this setting. Fourteen studies were selected for qualitative analysis. The highest(More)