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Pro-inflammatory cytokines are known to be elevated in several pathological conditions that are associated with deficits in cognition. We have previously demonstrated that interleukin-18 (IL-18) inhibits long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus in vitro. In this study we have examined the involvement of the inflammatory mediators COX-2 and iNOS in(More)
The effects of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) were investigated on both normal and isolated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated field excitatory post synaptic potentials (fEPSP) and on the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat dentate gyrus in vitro. Bath perfusion with IL-18 (100 ng/ml) for 20 min prior to(More)
Recent evidence has emphasised the importance of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Whilst extracellular-regulated kinase activation is now regarded as a critical step in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), activation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is associated with its(More)
The single gene for phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) in the haploid genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is expressed to a very high level in cultures fermenting glucose. Despite this it responds to heat-shock. When S. cerevisiae growing exponentially on glucose media was shifted from 25 degrees C to 38 degrees C transient increases of 6-7-fold in cellular PGK(More)
The phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter is often employed in yeast expression vectors due to its very high efficiency. Its activity in unstressed cells has been shown to be due to an upstream activator site (UASPGK) at -402 to -479. Since levels of PGK mRNA can sometimes be elevated by heat shock of yeast cultures this investigation determined how(More)
The half-lives of mRNAs in yeast vary from about 1 to over 100 min. While mRNA stabilities must strongly influence overall gene expression in this organism, very little is known about how they are determined. Labellings of yeast cells were conducted to investigate whether the 5'-cap structures of yeast mRNAs might influence their stability. Variation of the(More)
Nicotine has previously been shown to affect both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression and to reverse age-related impairments of LTP in the hippocampus. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines are known to be elevated with age and to inhibit LTP. In the present study we have investigated the effects of three pro-inflammatory cytokines on(More)
This study demonstrates how varying the promoter strength of an essential gene on a yeast 2 mu ORI-STB YEp multicopy vector can influence vector copy levels. A phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK) on this plasmid was made essential for fermentative growth by transformation into a pgk- yeast strain. When in these PGK+ transformants the requirement for PGK(More)
Heat shock enhances the very high level of transcription of the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene in fermentative cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This response of PGK mRNA levels was not found on gluconeogenic carbon sources, and could be switched on or off subject to availability of fermentable carbon source. The addition of glucose to yeast growing(More)