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Much evidence now exists regarding radiation-induced bystander effects, but the mechanisms involved in the transduction of the signal are still unclear. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been linked to growth factor-mediated regulation of cellular events such as proliferation, senescence, differentiation and apoptosis. Activation of(More)
There is much evidence supporting the existence of bystander effects in cells that were never exposed to radiation. Directly irradiated cells and bystander cells can communicate with each other using gap junctional intercellular communication or by releasing soluble factors into the surrounding medium. Exosomes and microvesicles are also known to mediate(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure of HPV-G cells to irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) could induce an adaptive response if the cells were subsequently challenged with a higher ICCM dose. Clonogenic survival and major steps in the cascade leading to apoptosis, such as calcium influx and loss of mitochondrial membrane(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to elucidate the sequence of very early bystander signalling events and to determine the role of the different signalling molecules in both the production of the bystander signal and the response to this signal. MATERIALS AND METHODS Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) were irradiated (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 Gy) using a(More)
This note outlines an improved method of calculating dose per monitor unit values for small electron fields using Khan's lateral build-up ratio (LBR). This modified method obtains the LBR directly from the ratio of measured, surface normalized, electron beam percentage depth dose curves. The LBR calculated using this modified method more accurately accounts(More)
This paper describes the errors in rebinning photon dose point spread functions and pencil beam kernels (PBKs) from cylindrical to Cartesian coordinates. An area overlap method, which assumes that the fractional energy deposited per unit volume remains constant within cylindrical voxels, provides large deviations (up to 20%) in rebinned Cartesian voxels(More)
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