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All existing transistors are based on the use of semiconductor junctions formed by introducing dopant atoms into the semiconductor material. As the distance between junctions in modern devices drops below 10 nm, extraordinarily high doping concentration gradients become necessary. Because of the laws of diffusion and the statistical nature of the(More)
Subsurface-flow constructed wetlands, sand filters, and peat filters near Duluth, Minnesota, were studied to determine their seasonal performance for removing pathogens from wastewater. Influent was a high-strength septic tank effluent (mean values of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were 294, 96, and 15 mg/L,(More)
Approximately 30% of Minnesotans use on-site systems (approximately 500,000 residences) and >50% are failing or non-compliant with regulations due to restrictive soils and site conditions. Many sites occur near lakes and streams creating health hazards and deteriorating water quality. SSF CWs have been evaluated year-round at two northern sites since 1995.(More)
We studied the role of the matrix metalloproteinase gelatinase B (gelB; MMP-9) in epithelial regeneration using the gelB-deficient mouse. We report the novel finding that, in contrast to other MMPs expressed at the front of the advancing epithelial sheet in wounds of cornea, skin, or trachea, gelB acts to inhibit the rate of wound closure. We determined(More)
Colonic tumors of human origin produce abundant transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta suggesting that TGF-beta is critical to their growth. Dietary lipids regulate a number of growth factors including TGF-beta. Whether elevated TGF-beta levels are consistently expressed in colonic tumors irrespective of the environmental milieu in an in vivo model is not(More)
Due to concerns about high I in milk, the dairy industry has proposed a voluntary standard of 500 micrograms of I/L as the maximum allowable I in milk sold for processing and human consumption. This study was undertaken to determine the amount of ethylenediamine dihydroiodide that could be fed to dairy cattle without exceeding this standard. Various amounts(More)
The use of Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIRS) to predict the concentrations of key analytes in fed-batch cultivations of an industrial strain of Pichia pastoris in a chemical complex medium was investigated. Models for glycerol, methanol (substrates), and product (an heterologous protein) were built, and evaluated. The use of a(More)
Mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) was used to simultaneously detect and predict concentrations of d-sorbitol and l-sorbose during a Gluconobacter suboxydans biotransformation. Quantitative models for both these compounds were developed for the entire time-course of the process and validated externally using samples not included in the original modelling(More)
BACKGROUND The relative importance of new risk factors for heart disease singly or in combination is uncertain. We assessed relationships between C-reactive protein, homocysteine, cysteine, von Willebrand factor, activated factor XII and stable heart disease, as well as interaction with established risk factors. METHODS A case-control study of 260 cases(More)
The objective of this study is to quantify the milk production response per cow and per hectare (ha) for an incremental stocking rate (SR) change, based on a meta-analysis of published research papers. Suitable experiments for inclusion in the database required a comparison of at least two SRs under the same experimental conditions in addition to details on(More)