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In 1953 Medawar pointed out that survival of the genetically disparate (allogeneic) mammalian conceptus contradicts the laws of tissue transplantation. Rapid T cell-induced rejection of all allogeneic concepti occurred when pregnant mice were treated with a pharmacologic inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme(More)
Immunoregulatory antigen-presenting cells (APC) play an important role in maintaining T cell homeostasis and self-tolerance. In particular, recent evidence demonstrates a role for inhibition of T cell proliferation by macrophage tryptophan catabolism involving the activity of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Dendritic cells (DC) have also been(More)
Murine dendritic cells (DCs) expressing indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) catabolize tryptophan and can suppress T cell responses elicited in vivo. Here, we identify specific subsets of splenic (CD11c+) dendritic cells competent to mediate IDO-dependent T cell suppression following CTLA4-mediated ligation of B7 molecules. IDO-competent DC subsets acquired(More)
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can induce tolerance or immunity. We describe a subset of human APCs that express indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro. IDO-positive APCs constituted a discrete subset identified by coexpression of the cell-surface markers CD123 and CCR6. In the dendritic cell (DC) lineage, IDO-mediated(More)
In mice, immunoregulatory APCs express the dendritic cell (DC) marker CD11c, and one or more distinctive markers (CD8alpha, B220, DX5). In this study, we show that expression of the tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) is selectively induced in specific splenic DC subsets when mice were exposed to the synthetic immunomodulatory(More)
Pharmacologic inhibition of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity during murine pregnancy results in rejection of allogeneic fetuses by the maternal immune system. Here, we show that IDO expression is restricted to perinuclear regions of primary trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) of fetal origin at mid-gestation (E10.5). After placentation (E14), no IDO(More)
Cells expressing indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) play key roles in regulating adaptive immune responses orchestrated by T cells. In this report we discuss our working model, the tryptophan depletion hypothesis, to explain links between IDO expression and inhibition of T cell responses. We posit that IDO+ cells, particularly professional antigen presenting(More)
The autophagy response induced by HSV-1 infection is antagonized by the Beclin-binding domain (BBD). The purpose of this study was to determine if lack of the BBD affects viral spread and immune response in the eyes and brain. Our results showed that lack of the BBD increases autophagy response and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, which in turn induces a(More)
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immune suppressive cells that are hallmarks of human cancer. MDSCs inhibit cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cell functions to promote tumor immune escape and progression, and therefore are considered key targets in cancer immunotherapy. Recent studies determined a key role of the apoptosis pathways in(More)
BACKGROUND The tryptophan catabolizing enzyme, indoleamine 2,3, dioxygenase (IDO) is one of two mammalian enzymes, which can catabolize the rarest essential amino acid, tryptophan. IDO is inducible by cytokines such as interferon-gamma and plays a role in inflammation and maternal tolerance of fetal allografts, although its exact mode of action is unclear.(More)