Brendan Kennedy

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We present an optical technique to image the frequency-dependent complex mechanical response of a viscoelastic sample. Three-dimensional hyperspectral data, comprising two-dimensional B-mode images and a third dimension corresponding to vibration frequency, were acquired from samples undergoing external mechanical excitation in the audio-frequency range. We(More)
We present the first three-dimensional (3D) data sets recorded using optical coherence elastography (OCE). Uni-axial strain rate was measured on human skin in vivo using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system providing >450 times higher line rate than previously reported for in vivo OCE imaging. Mechanical excitation was applied at a(More)
We review the development of phantoms for optical coherence tomography (OCT) designed to replicate the optical, mechanical and structural properties of a range of tissues. Such phantoms are a key requirement for the continued development of OCT techniques and applications. We focus on phantoms based on silicone, fibrin and poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels(More)
Optical coherence elastography employs optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the displacement of tissues under load and, thus, maps the resulting strain into an image, known as an elastogram. We present a new improved method to measure vibration amplitude in dynamic optical coherence elastography. The tissue vibration amplitude caused by sinusoidal(More)
Light scattered by turbid tissue is known to degrade optical coherence tomography (OCT) image contrast progressively with depth. Bessel beams have been proposed as an alternative to Gaussian beams to image deeper into turbid tissue. However, studies of turbid tissue comparing the image quality for different beam types are lacking. We present such a study,(More)
We present optical palpation, a tactile imaging technique for mapping micrometer- to millimeter-scale mechanical variations in soft tissue. In optical palpation, a stress sensor consisting of translucent, compliant silicone with known stress-strain behavior is placed on the tissue surface and a compressive load is applied. Optical coherence tomography (OCT)(More)
We present a theoretical framework for strain estimation in optical coherence elastography (OCE), based on a statistical analysis of displacement measurements obtained from a mechanically loaded sample. We define strain sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and dynamic range, and derive estimates of strain using three methods: finite difference, ordinary least(More)
Probing the mechanical properties of tissue on the microscale could aid in the identification of diseased tissues that are inadequately detected using palpation or current clinical imaging modalities, with potential to guide medical procedures such as the excision of breast tumours. Compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) maps tissue strain with(More)
Evaluation of lymph node involvement is an important factor in detecting metastasis and deciding whether to perform axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer surgery. As ALND is associated with potentially severe long term morbidity, the accuracy of lymph node assessment is imperative in avoiding unnecessary ALND. The mechanical properties of(More)