Brenda K. Wiederhold

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The electrocardiogram (ECG also called EKG) trace expresses cardiac features that are unique to an individual. The ECG processing followed a logical series of experiments with quantifiable metrics. Data filters were designed based upon the observed noise sources. Fiducial points were identified on the filtered data and extracted digitally for each(More)
As virtual reality technology continues to attract significant attention in clinical psychology, especially in the treatment of phobias, physiological monitoring is increasingly considered as an objective measurement tool for studying participants. There are few studies, however, of the normal physiological response to virtual environments or reactions to(More)
Smokers who are exposed to smoking-related cues show cardiovascular reactivity and smoking craving compared with their responses to neutral cues, and increased cue reactivity predicts decreased likelihood of successful cessation. Several brain imaging studies suggested four candidate brain regions that might differ in gray matter volumes and densities(More)
Behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders is believed to rely on fear extinction. Because preclinical studies have shown that glucocorticoids can promote extinction processes, we aimed at investigating whether the administration of these hormones might be useful in enhancing exposure therapy. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study,(More)
The use of a multicomponent cognitive-behavioral treatment strategy for panic disorder with agoraphobia is actually one of the preferred therapeutic approaches for this disturbance. This method involves a mixture of cognitive and behavioral techniques that are intended to help patients identify and modify their dysfunctional anxiety-related thoughts,(More)
Thirty participants who had been treated for aviophobia with virtual reality graded exposure therapy with physiological monitoring and visual feedback (VRGETpm), virtual reality graded exposure therapy with physiological monitoring only (VRGETno), or imaginal exposure therapy (visualization) with physiological monitoring only (IET) between January 1998 and(More)
The effects of varying levels of immersion in virtual reality environments on participant's heart rate, respiration rate, peripheral skin temperature, and skin resistance levels were examined. Subjective reports of presence were also noted. Participants were presented with a virtual environment of an airplane flight both as seen from a two-dimensional(More)
Specific phobia, situational type-driving, induced by accident (accident phobia) occurs in 18-38% of those involved in a vehicular accident of sufficient severity to warrant referral to the emergency departments of a general hospital. The objective is to investigate, in an open study, the effectiveness of the combined use of computer generated environments(More)
The goal of this study was to assess effectiveness of a short collective stress inoculation training (SIT) conducted according to the methodology of the Virtual Reality Medical Center of San Diego (Training of Physiological Control Exposure to Virtual Stressor while Maintaining Physiological Control). The results obtained indicate a short-term effectiveness(More)
A treatment protocol, called experiential cognitive therapy (ExCT), was developed. It integrated traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with virtual reality exposure for the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of short-term (four sessions) ExCT compared with a traditional 12-session(More)