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The aim of this study was to determine whether prolonged, repetitive mixed nerve stimulation (duty cycle 1 s, 500 ms on-500 ms off, 10 Hz) of the ulnar nerve leads to a change in excitability of primary motor cortex in normal human subjects. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) generated in three intrinsic hand muscles [abductor digiti minimi (ADM), first dorsal(More)
A basic difficulty for the nervous system is integrating locally ambiguous sensory information to form accurate perceptions about the outside world. This local-to-global problem is also fundamental to motor control of the arm, because complex mechanical interactions between shoulder and elbow allow a particular amount of motion at one joint to arise from an(More)
The pattern of muscle activation produced by magnetic stimulation over the human motor cortex has been examined in normal subjects. Magnetic stimulation elicited short latency compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) from upper limb muscles contralateral to the stimulus and from lower limb muscles bilaterally. In the upper limb, the hand and forearm(More)
In vivo magnetic resonance imaging has revealed that the anterior half of the corpus callosum is larger in musicians trained intensively from an early age than in untrained subjects. The corpus callosum is crucial for the coordination of bimanual motor activity, but neurophysiological correlates of morphological differences in the corpus callosum of(More)
The reliability of outcome measures obtained using the Balance Master and the limits of stability in anterior, posterior, and lateral directions were evaluated in 70 healthy subjects aged 20 to 32 years. Data relating to static sway and the ability to shift the centre of gravity to preset targets were collected on three occasions one week apart. The centre(More)
The characteristics and variability of the short latency responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were examined in 188 single lower limb motor units. Information about the cortically evoked postsynaptic potentials was derived from peristimulus time histograms generated from the discharge times of single, rhythmically active, motor units.(More)
BACKGROUND Although treadmill and overground walking appear to be biomechanically similar in healthy, young adults it is not known whether this can be generalized to older subjects or if the metabolic demands are correspondingly comparable. METHODS Ten healthy adults between 50 and 73 years of age walked at the same speed overground and on a treadmill.(More)
This study explored the effect of vibration of the forearm extensors on motor cortical excitability and the influence of stimulus duration. Sixteen healthy volunteers between 23 and 42 years old participated in one or two studies. We applied 15 or 30 min of 100 Hz, 0.5 mm-amplitude vibration to the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) muscle. Cortical(More)
The projections of cortical neurons activated by transcranial magnetic stimulation to single lower limb spinal motoneurons were examined in 34 normal subjects. Peristimulus time histograms of the discharge times of single, voluntarily activated motor units were used to derive information about postsynaptic potentials in single spinal motoneurons produced by(More)
A magnetic stimulus applied to the human scalp over the motor cortex causes a short latency contraction of contralateral limb muscles. This is presumed to result from the indirect excitation of corticospinal neurons with monosynaptic connections to motoneurons. The excitability of these cortical neurons can be estimated from the magnitude of the(More)