Brenda J Brouwer

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The aim of this study was to determine whether prolonged, repetitive mixed nerve stimulation (duty cycle 1 s, 500 ms on–500 ms off, 10 Hz) of the ulnar nerve leads to a change in excitability of primary motor cortex in normal human subjects. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) generated in three intrinsic hand muscles [abductor digiti minimi (ADM), first dorsal(More)
A basic difficulty for the nervous system is integrating locally ambiguous sensory information to form accurate perceptions about the outside world. This local-to-global problem is also fundamental to motor control of the arm, because complex mechanical interactions between shoulder and elbow allow a particular amount of motion at one joint to arise from an(More)
The pattern of muscle activation produced by magnetic stimulation over the human motor cortex has been examined in normal subjects. Magnetic stimulation elicited short latency compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) from upper limb muscles contralateral to the stimulus and from lower limb muscles bilaterally. In the upper limb, the hand and forearm(More)
The reliability of outcome measures obtained using the Balance Master and the limits of stability in anterior, posterior, and lateral directions were evaluated in 70 healthy subjects aged 20 to 32 years. Data relating to static sway and the ability to shift the centre of gravity to preset targets were collected on three occasions one week apart. The centre(More)
In vivo magnetic resonance imaging has revealed that the anterior half of the corpus callosum is larger in musicians trained intensively from an early age than in untrained subjects. The corpus callosum is crucial for the coordination of bimanual motor activity, but neurophysiological correlates of morphological differences in the corpus callosum of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Visual feedback related to weight distribution and center-of-pressure positioning has been shown to be effective in increasing stance symmetry following stroke, although it is not clear whether functional balance ability also improves. This study compared the relative effectiveness of visual feedback training of center-of-gravity(More)
BACKGROUND Although treadmill and overground walking appear to be biomechanically similar in healthy, young adults it is not known whether this can be generalized to older subjects or if the metabolic demands are correspondingly comparable. METHODS Ten healthy adults between 50 and 73 years of age walked at the same speed overground and on a treadmill.(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess the relative contribution of the corticospinal (CS) pathway in activating the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle in each hand of 16 right- (RH) and 16 left-handed (LH) subjects with varied degrees of hand preference. It was hypothesised that asymmetry in corticospinal activation of the two hands(More)
BACKGROUND Fear of falling (FF) is pervasive among older people and is an independent risk factor for decreased mobility and loss of quality of life. Although it is a serious health concern, little is known about the severity of the physical and health-related deficits in high-functioning fearful seniors. OBJECTIVE This study examined the physical(More)
Postural stability is essential to functional activities. This paper presents a new model of dynamic stability which takes into account both the equilibrium associated with the body position over the base of support (destabilizing force) and the effort the subject needs to produce to keep his/her centre of mass inside the base of support (stabilizing(More)