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New evidence and consensus has led to further revision of the McDonald Criteria for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The use of imaging for demonstration of dissemination of central nervous system lesions in space and time has been simplified, and in some circumstances dissemination in space and time can be established by a single scan. These revisions(More)
BACKGROUND The CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorders of childhood include both self-limited and lifelong conditions, which can be indistinguishable at the time of initial presentation. Clinical, biologic, and radiographic delineation of the various monophasic and chronic childhood demyelinating disorders requires an operational classification system to(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of acquired demyelination of the CNS (acquired demyelinating syndromes [ADS]) in children is unknown. It is important that physicians recognize the features of ADS to facilitate care and to appreciate the future risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence, clinical features, familial autoimmune history,(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to establish the feasibility of long-term gentamicin dosing to achieve stop codon readthrough and produce full-length dystrophin. Mutation suppression of stop codons, successfully achieved in the mdx mouse using gentamicin, represents an important evolving treatment strategy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). (More)
BACKGROUND Optic neuritis (ON) in childhood is thought to be more likely bilateral and less likely to lead to multiple sclerosis (MS) vs ON in adults. METHODS The authors evaluated clinical features, maximal visual deficit and recovery, visual evoked potentials (VEPs), neuroimaging, and outcome in a cohort of children with ON. RESULTS Records of 36(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) typically manifests in early to mid adulthood, but there is increasing recognition of pediatric-onset MS, aided by improvements in imaging techniques. The immunological mechanisms of disease are largely unexplored in pediatric-onset MS, in part because studies have historically focused on adult-onset disease. We investigated(More)
Tumefactive demyelinating lesions may be misdiagnosed as brain neoplasms or abscesses. In this paper, we present four cases of pediatric tumefactive demyelination. Twelve cases of pediatric tumefactive demyelination previously reported in the English literature are also summarized. We describe the neuroimaging characteristics and clinical presentation of(More)
The onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) in childhood poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, particularly if the symptoms of the first demyelinating event resemble acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). MRI is an invaluable diagnostic tool but it lacks the specificity to distinguish ADEM from the first attack of MS. Advanced MRI techniques might(More)
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory CNS syndrome distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS) that is associated with serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG). Prior NMO diagnostic criteria required optic nerve and spinal cord involvement but more restricted or more extensive CNS involvement may occur. The International Panel for NMO(More)
BACKGROUND Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is typically a monophasic demyelinating disorder. However, a clinical presentation consistent with ADEM can also be the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS), particularly in children. Quantitative analyses of MRI images from children with monophasic ADEM have yet to be compared with those from(More)