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Leishmania spp. are intracellular protozoa residing in mononuclear phagocytes. Leishmania organisms are susceptible to microbicidal responses generated in response to phagocytosis. Assuming that both phagocyte and parasite populations are heterogeneous, it is advantageous to examine the response of individual cells phagocytosing living parasites. Because(More)
The mammalian intestine is home to a dense community of bacteria and its associated bacteriophage (phage). Virtually nothing is known about how phages impact the establishment and maintenance of resident bacterial communities in the intestine. Here, we examine the phages harbored by Enterococcus faecalis, a commensal of the human intestine. We show that E.(More)
Bacterial acyl-homoserine lactones upregulated an uncharacterized gene cluster (bta) in Burkholderia thailandensis E264 to produce an uncharacterized polar antibiotic. The antibiotic is identified as a mixture of four bactobolins. Annotation of the bta cluster allows us to propose a biosynthetic scheme for bactobolin and reveals unusual enzymatic reactions(More)
Acyl-homoserine lactones (HSLs) serve as quorum-sensing signals for many Proteobacteria. Members of the LuxI family of signal generators catalyze the production of acyl-HSLs, which bind to a cognate receptor in the LuxR family of transcription factors. The obligate animal pathogen Burkholderia mallei produces several acyl-HSLs, and the B. mallei genome has(More)
The human body is colonized with a diverse resident microflora that includes viruses. Recent studies of metagenomes have begun to characterize the composition of the human 'virobiota' and its associated genes (the 'virome'), and have fostered the emerging field of host-virobiota interactions. In this Perspective, we explore how resident viruses interact(More)
The mammalian intestinal mucosal surface is continuously exposed to a complex and dynamic community of microorganisms. These microbes establish symbiotic relationships with their hosts, making important contributions to metabolism and digestive efficiency. The intestinal epithelial surface is the primary interface between the vast microbiota and internal(More)
The genome of Burkholderia thailandensis codes for several LuxR-LuxI quorum-sensing systems. We used B. thailandensis quorum-sensing deletion mutants and recombinant Escherichia coli to determine the nature of the signals produced by one of the systems, BtaR2-BtaI2, and to show that this system controls genes required for the synthesis of an antibiotic.(More)
The pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals to coordinate the expression of a battery of virulence genes in a cascade of regulatory events. The quorum-sensing signal that triggers the cascade is N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL), which interacts with two signal receptor-transcription(More)
Burkholderia mallei has two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signal generator-receptor pairs and two additional signal receptors, all of which contribute to virulence. We show that B. mallei produces N-3-hydroxy-octanoyl HSL (3OHC8-HSL) but a bmaI3 mutant does not. Recombinant Escherichia coli expressing BmaI3 produces hydroxylated acyl-HSLs, with(More)
UNLABELLED The human intestine harbors diverse communities of bacteria and bacteriophages. Given the specificity of phages for their bacterial hosts, there is growing interest in using phage therapies to combat the rising incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. A significant barrier to such therapies is the rapid development of(More)