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One mechanism by which bacteria survive environmental stress is through the formation of bacterial persisters, a sub-population of genetically identical quiescent cells that exhibit multidrug tolerance and are highly enriched in bacterial toxins. Recently, the Escherichia coli gene mqsR (b3022) was identified as the gene most highly upregulated in(More)
Although it is well recognized that bacteria respond to environmental stress through global networks, the mechanism by which stress is relayed to the interior of the cell is poorly understood. Here we show that enigmatic toxin-antitoxin systems are vital in mediating the environmental stress response. Specifically, the antitoxin MqsA represses rpoS, which(More)
MarR family proteins constitute a group of >12 000 transcriptional regulators encoded in bacterial and archaeal genomes that control gene expression in metabolism, stress responses, virulence and multi-drug resistance. There is much interest in defining the molecular mechanism by which ligand binding attenuates the DNA-binding activities of these proteins.(More)
Spine-associated RapGAP (SPAR) is a 1783 residue, multidomain scaffolding protein which is a component of the NMDA receptor/PSD-95 complex in the post-synaptic density (PSD) of dendritic spines. Using a parallel expression screening approach, we identified a strategy to solubly express the SPAR PDZ domain in Escherichia coli. We show that maltose binding(More)
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