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One mechanism by which bacteria survive environmental stress is through the formation of bacterial persisters, a sub-population of genetically identical quiescent cells that exhibit multidrug tolerance and are highly enriched in bacterial toxins. Recently, the Escherichia coli gene mqsR (b3022) was identified as the gene most highly upregulated in(More)
Recipient strains of Streptococcus faecalis produce a trypsin sensitive, heat resistant, nuclease resistant factor, designated clumping-inducing agent (CIA) which causes strains carrying certain conjugative plasmids to aggregate. RNA and protein synthesis but not DNA synthesis are required for aggregation to occur. Recipient filtrates that contain CIA(More)
Although it is well recognized that bacteria respond to environmental stress through global networks, the mechanism by which stress is relayed to the interior of the cell is poorly understood. Here we show that enigmatic toxin-antitoxin systems are vital in mediating the environmental stress response. Specifically, the antitoxin MqsA represses rpoS, which(More)
Bacterial cultures, especially biofilms, produce a small number of persister cells, a genetically identical subpopulation of wild type cells that are metabolically dormant, exhibit multidrug tolerance, and are highly enriched in bacterial toxins. The gene most highly up-regulated in Escherichia coli persisters is mqsR, a ribonuclease toxin that, along with(More)
The Escherichia coli proteins MqsR and MqsA comprise a novel toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. MqsA, the antitoxin, defines a new family of antitoxins because unlike other antitoxins MqsA is structured throughout its entire sequence, binds zinc and coordinates DNA via its C-terminal and not its N-terminal domain. In order to understand how bacterial antitoxins,(More)
Streptococcus faecalis strains ND539 and OG1 have been previously shown to be cariogenic in gnotobiotic animals. Deoxyribonucleic acid analyses have revealed the presence of a single 26-megadalton plasmid designated pAM539 in the former strain, whereas the latter strain was found to be plasmid-free. By gene transfer experiments, it was possible to construct(More)
Two plasmids designated pOB1 and pOB2 were isolated from Streptococcus faecalis strain 5952 and found to have molecular weights of approximately 46 X 10(6) and 28 X 10(6), respectively. pOB1 was found to determine hemolytic activity and was transmissible, whereas pOB2 appeared to determine a bacteriocin that is specifically inhibitory to S. faecalis strains(More)
This paper reports cloning of the cDNA for sea bream (Sparus aurata) parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). The gene codes for a 125-amino acid mature protein with a 35-residue prepeptide. The total gene sequence is 1.8 kb with approximately 75% noncoding. The N-terminus of the protein resembles mammalian and chicken PTHrP peptides with 12 of the(More)