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Apoptotic cells release 'find-me' signals at the earliest stages of death to recruit phagocytes. The nucleotides ATP and UTP represent one class of find-me signals, but their mechanism of release is not known. Here, we identify the plasma membrane channel pannexin 1 (PANX1) as a mediator of find-me signal/nucleotide release from apoptotic cells.(More)
Models of unregulated nitric oxide (NO) diffusion do not consistently account for the biochemistry of NO synthase (NOS)-dependent signalling in many cell systems. For example, endothelial NOS controls blood pressure, blood flow and oxygen delivery through its effect on vascular smooth muscle tone, but the regulation of these processes is not adequately(More)
Posttranslational modification is a common cellular process that is used by cells to ensure a particular protein function. This can happen in a variety of ways, e.g., from the addition of phosphates or sugar residues to a particular amino acid, ensuring proper protein life cycle and function. In this review, we assess the evidence for ubiquitination,(More)
Pannexins are a class of plasma membrane spanning proteins that presumably form a hexameric, non-selective ion channel. Although similar in secondary structure to the connexins, pannexins notably do not form endogenous gap junctions and act as bona fide ion channels. The pannexins have been primarily studied as ATP-release channels, but the overall(More)
Objective—In endothelial cells (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from atherosclerotic mice, connexin (Cx) expression becomes distorted. Lipoprotein-derived phospholipid oxidation products (OxPAPC) play a critical role in atherosclerosis, and we hypothesized that they may act as trigger molecules causing the changes in connexin expression. Methods(More)
BACKGROUND Tracheal epithelial cells are anchored to a dynamic basement membrane that contains a variety of extracellular matrix proteins including collagens and laminins. During development, wound repair and disease of the airway epithelium, significant changes in extracellular matrix proteins may directly affect cell migration, differentiation and events(More)
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) is responsible for producing nitric oxide (NO)—a key molecule that can directly (or indirectly) act as a vasodilator and anti-inflammatory mediator. In this review, we examine the structural effects of regulation of the eNOS enzyme, including post-translational modifications and subcellular localization. After(More)
Lymphatic collecting vessels direct lymph into and from lymph nodes (LNs) and can become hyperpermeable as the result of a previous infection. Enhanced permeability has been implicated in compromised immunity due to reduced flow of lymph and immune cells to LNs, which are the primary site of antigen presentation to T cells. Presently, very little is known(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) is prevalent in obesity and diabetes, even in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), and is prognostic of adverse events. We sought to establish the time course of reduced MPR and to investigate associated vascular and tissue properties in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), as they are(More)