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Apoptotic cells release 'find-me' signals at the earliest stages of death to recruit phagocytes. The nucleotides ATP and UTP represent one class of find-me signals, but their mechanism of release is not known. Here, we identify the plasma membrane channel pannexin 1 (PANX1) as a mediator of find-me signal/nucleotide release from apoptotic cells.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether S-nitrosylation of connexins (Cxs) modulates gap junction communication between endothelium and smooth muscle. METHODS AND RESULTS Heterocellular communication is essential for endothelium control of smooth muscle constriction; however, the exact mechanism governing this action remains unknown. Cxs and NO have been(More)
Posttranslational modification is a common cellular process that is used by cells to ensure a particular protein function. This can happen in a variety of ways, e.g., from the addition of phosphates or sugar residues to a particular amino acid, ensuring proper protein life cycle and function. In this review, we assess the evidence for ubiquitination,(More)
Models of unregulated nitric oxide (NO) diffusion do not consistently account for the biochemistry of NO synthase (NOS)-dependent signalling in many cell systems. For example, endothelial NOS controls blood pressure, blood flow and oxygen delivery through its effect on vascular smooth muscle tone, but the regulation of these processes is not adequately(More)
Pannexins are a class of plasma membrane spanning proteins that presumably form a hexameric, non-selective ion channel. Although similar in secondary structure to the connexins, pannexins notably do not form endogenous gap junctions and act as bona fide ion channels. The pannexins have been primarily studied as ATP-release channels, but the overall(More)
T he proteins that form the gap junctions (connexins) are widely expressed in organs that are central to the development of hypertension: endocrine organs, kidney, brain, heart, and vasculature (Figure 1). Surprisingly, there is little information on the modification of connexins in hypertension in any of these organs except the vasculature, the subject of(More)
OBJECTIVE In endothelial cells (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from atherosclerotic mice, connexin (Cx) expression becomes distorted. Lipoprotein-derived phospholipid oxidation products (OxPAPC) play a critical role in atherosclerosis, and we hypothesized that they may act as trigger molecules causing the changes in connexin expression. (More)
Herein we employ Myh11-CreER T2 ROSA floxed STOP eYFP Apoe −/− smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage tracing mice to show that traditional methods for detecting SMCs based on immuno-staining fail to detect > 80% of SMC-derived cells within advanced atherosclerotic lesions. These unidentified SMC-derived cells exhibit phenotypes of other cell lineages including(More)
Lymphatic collecting vessels direct lymph into and from lymph nodes (LNs) and can become hyperpermeable as the result of a previous infection. Enhanced permeability has been implicated in compromised immunity due to reduced flow of lymph and immune cells to LNs, which are the primary site of antigen presentation to T cells. Presently, very little is known(More)
BACKGROUND Tracheal epithelial cells are anchored to a dynamic basement membrane that contains a variety of extracellular matrix proteins including collagens and laminins. During development, wound repair and disease of the airway epithelium, significant changes in extracellular matrix proteins may directly affect cell migration, differentiation and events(More)