Brandon Z. Londt

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There have been at least ten distinct outbreaks of LPAI or HPAI in poultry caused by H5 or H7 viruses in the last eight years in Europe and the Middle East. There appears to be an increased occurrence of such episodes consistent with global trends. As a result, surveillance systems have been enhanced to facilitate early detection of infection in poultry,(More)
Genetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses from poultry and hooded vultures in Burkina Faso shows that these viruses belong to 1 of 3 sublineages initially found in Nigeria and later in other African countries. Hooded vultures could potentially be vectors or sentinels of influenza subtype H5N1, as are cats and swans elsewhere.
We previously described the use of an established reverse genetics system for the generation of recombinant human influenza A viruses from cloned cDNAs. Here, we have assembled a set of plasmids to allow recovery of the avian H5N1 influenza virus A/Turkey/England/50-92/91 entirely from cDNA. This system enables us to introduce mutations or truncations into(More)
The emergence and spread of H5N1 avian influenza viruses from Asia through to Europe and Africa pose a significant animal disease problem and have raised concerns that the virus may pose a pandemic threat to humans. The epizootological factors that have influenced the wide distribution of the virus are complex, and the variety of viruses currently(More)
Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses has been compulsory in the European Union (EU) since 2005, primarily as a means of detecting H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and of monitoring the circulation of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus H5 and H7 strains. In 2007, 79,392 wild birds were tested throughout the(More)
Four avian influenza viruses have been recognized that have genetic coding for highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, but do not show virulence for chickens. The two different mechanisms that prevent this potential being expressed have been determined for A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1/83 (H5N2) and A/goose/Guandong/2/96 (H5N1), but neither of these applies(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses cause severe infection in chickens at near complete mortality, but corresponding infection in ducks is typically mild or asymptomatic. To understand the underlying molecular differences in host response, primary chicken and duck lung cells, infected with two HPAI H5N1 viruses and a low pathogenicity(More)
Since 2005 there have been five incursions into Great Britain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N1 related to the ongoing global epizootic. The first incursion occurred in October 2005 in birds held in quarantine after importation from Taiwan. Two incursions related to wild birds: one involved a single dead whooper swan found(More)
OBJECTIVES The HPAI H5N2 strain that caused an outbreak in ostriches of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa in 2004 was characterized. DESIGN Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) were performed on sera from ostrich farms in the outbreak region, and intravenous pathogenicity (IVPI) tests,(More)