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PURPOSE To provide quantitative information on glucose utilization in cone-dominant ground squirrel retinas. METHODS Ground squirrel eyecups were incubated in medium containing (14)C-glucose, and the production of (14)CO(2) was measured. Measurements were also made of lactic acid production (glycolysis). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to track(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether substance P (SP) in herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infected cornea regulates the severity of herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) lesions in a mouse model. METHODS C57BL/6 mice were infected ocularly with HSV-1 (RE). The corneas with HSK lesions, on Day 15 postinfection, were grouped on the basis of the corneal opacity as mild(More)
Decline in CD4 T cell function is the hallmark of aging. In this study, we compared the proportion and absolute number of inhibitory receptor expressing splenic CD4 T cells in unprimed young (2 months) and aged (20 months) C57BL/6 mice. Our results showed a predominance of PD-1, ICOS and CTLA-4 expressing conventional and regulatory CD4 T cells in aged(More)
The blocking of programmed death ligand-1 (PDL-1) has been shown to enhance virus-specific CD8 T cell function during chronic viral infections. Though, how PDL-1 blocking at the time of priming affects the quality of CD8 T cell response to acute infections is not well understood and remains controversial. This report demonstrates that the magnitude of the(More)
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