Brandon S. Razooky

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Gene expression occurs either as an episodic process, characterized by pulsatile bursts, or as a constitutive process, characterized by a Poisson-like accumulation of gene products. It is not clear which mode of gene expression (constitutive versus bursty) predominates across a genome or how transcriptional dynamics are influenced by genomic position and(More)
Analysis of noise in gene expression has proven a powerful approach for analyzing gene regulatory architecture. To probe the regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of HIV-1, we analyze noise in gene-expression from HIV-1's long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter at different HIV-1 integration sites across the human genome. Flow cytometry analysis of GFP(More)
Biological circuits can be controlled by two general schemes: environmental sensing or autonomous programs. For viruses such as HIV, the prevailing hypothesis is that latent infection is controlled by cellular state (i.e., environment), with latency simply an epiphenomenon of infected cells transitioning from an activated to resting state. However, we find(More)
Within individual cells, two molecular processes have been implicated as sources of noise in gene expression: (i) Poisson fluctuations in mRNA abundance arising from random birth and death of individual mRNA transcripts or (ii) promoter fluctuations arising from stochastic promoter transitions between different transcriptional states. Steady-state(More)
When combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) was first administered to HIV-infected individuals in the 1990s, patient viral loads declined so rapidly that it seemed a cure could be achieved within 2–3 y of therapy (1). However, the presence of a long-lived reservoir of latently infected CD4 memory T cells (2) diminished these hopes. When ART was(More)
Upon infection of a CD4(+) T cell, HIV-1 appears to 'choose' between two alternate fates: active replication or a long-lived dormant state termed proviral latency. A transcriptional positive-feedback loop generated by the HIV-1 Tat protein appears sufficient to mediate this decision. Here, we describe a coupled wet-lab and computational approach that uses(More)
Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i) the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different(More)
A major obstacle in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a sub-population of latently infected CD4(+) T lymphocytes. The cellular and viral mechanisms regulating HIV-1 latency are not completely understood, and a promising technique for probing the regulation of HIV-1 latency is single-cell time-lapse microscopy. Unfortunately,(More)
Recent analysis demonstrates that the HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (HIV LTR) promoter exhibits a range of possible transcriptional burst sizes and frequencies for any mean-expression level. However, these results have also been interpreted as demonstrating that cell-to-cell expression variability (noise) and mean are uncorrelated, a significant deviation from(More)
Fundamental to biological decision-making is the ability to generate bimodal expression patterns where 2 alternate expression states simultaneously exist. Here, we use a combination of single-cell analysis and mathematical modeling to examine the sources of bimodality in the transcriptional program controlling HIV's fate decision between active replication(More)