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As population structure can result in spurious associations, it has constrained the use of association studies in human and plant genetics. Association mapping, however, holds great promise if true signals of functional association can be separated from the vast number of false signals generated by population structure. We have developed a unified(More)
It has long been suspected that maize is the product of an historical tetraploid event. Several observations support this possibility, including the fact that the maize genome contains duplicated chromosomal segments with colinear gene arrangements. Some of the genes from these duplicated segments have been sequenced. In this study, we examine the pattern(More)
Domestication promotes rapid phenotypic evolution through artificial selection. We investigated the genetic history by which the wild grass teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) was domesticated into modern maize (Z. mays ssp. mays). Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 774 genes indicates that 2 to 4% of these genes experienced artificial(More)
We report the 207-Mb genome sequence of the North American Arabidopsis lyrata strain MN47 based on 8.3× dideoxy sequence coverage. We predict 32,670 genes in this outcrossing species compared to the 27,025 genes in the selfing species Arabidopsis thaliana. The much smaller 125-Mb genome of A. thaliana, which diverged from A. lyrata 10 million years ago,(More)
The rice Xa21 gene confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae in a race-specific manner. Analysis of the inheritance patterns and resistance spectra of transgenic plants carrying six Xa21 gene family members indicated that one member, designated Xa21D, displayed a resistance spectrum identical to that observed for Xa21 but conferred only partial(More)
A model of DNA sequence evolution applicable to coding regions is presented. This represents the first evolutionary model that accounts for dependencies among nucleotides within a codon. The model uses the codon, as opposed to the nucleotide, as the unit of evolution, and is parameterized in terms of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution(More)
In Arabidopsis, tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs) comprise >10% of the genes in the genome. These duplicated genes represent a rich template for genetic innovation, but little is known of the evolutionary forces governing their generation and maintenance. Here we compare the organization and evolution of TAGs between Arabidopsis and rice, two plant genomes that(More)
Disease resistance genes in plants are often found in complex multigene families. The largest known cluster of disease resistance specificities in lettuce contains the RGC2 family of genes. We compared the sequences of nine full-length genomic copies of RGC2 representing the diversity in the cluster to determine the structure of genes within this family and(More)
The first papers on plant molecular population genetics were published approximately 10 years ago. Since that time, well over 50 additional studies of plant nucleotide polymorphism have been published, and many of these studies focused on detecting the signature of balancing or positive selection at a locus. In this review, we discuss some of the(More)