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Active maternal smoking has adverse effects on neurobehavioral development of the offspring, with nicotine (Nic) providing much of the underlying causative mechanism. To determine whether the lower exposures caused by second-hand smoke are deleterious, we administered tobacco smoke extract (TSE) to pregnant rats starting preconception and continued through(More)
The insular cortex has been associated with the processing of rewarding stimuli and with the neural bases of drug addiction. Ischemic damage to the insula has been associated with decreased desire to smoke cigarettes. Which component of insular function is involved in the neural basis of cigarette smoking is not clear. Dopamine systems are crucial for the(More)
Tobacco smoking has been shown to be quite addictive in people. However, nicotine itself is a weak reinforcer compared to other commonly abused drugs, leading speculation that other factors contribute to the high prevalence of tobacco addiction in the human population. In addition to nicotine, there are over 5000 chemical compounds that have been identified(More)
Varenicline and bupropion each have been shown to significantly improve cessation of tobacco addiction in humans. They act through different mechanisms and the question about the potential added efficacy with their combined used has arisen. Preclinical animal models of nicotine addiction can help with the evaluation of this combined approach and what dose(More)
An unfortunate result of the rapid rise in geriatric populations worldwide is the increasing prevalence of age-related cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a devastating neurodegenerative illness that is characterized by a profound impairment of cognitive function, marked physical disability, and an enormous economic burden on the(More)
Withdrawal from cocaine use often is associated with anxiety and depressive states. In this study the use-dependent, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist bis-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl) sebacate (BTMPS) was studied for its ability to reduce these symptoms in two rat models of anxiety and depression. Rats were administered saline vehicle, or(More)
Acknowledgments This thesis has been the product of collaboration with several people. Above all, I would like to acknowledge the guidance I received from my advisor, Mike Dahlin. Mike provided signicant direction on a number of key points in the evolution of this work, but most importantly, under his tutelage I have come to recognize what good systems(More)
Nicotine has been well characterized to improve memory and attention. Nicotine is the primary, but not only neuroactive compound in tobacco. Other tobacco constituents such as anabasine and anatabine also have agonist actions on nicotinic receptors. The current study investigated the effects of anabasine and anatabine on memory and attention. Adult female(More)
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to the reduction of the startle response magnitude when a startling stimulus is closely preceded by a weak stimulus. PPI is commonly used to measure sensorimotor gating. In rats, the PPI reduction induced by the dopamine agonist apomorphine can be reversed by systemic administration of nicotine. A high concentration of(More)