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Primary visual cortex (V1) is the site at which orientation selectivity emerges in mammals: visual thalamus afferents to V1 respond equally to all stimulus orientations, whereas their target V1 neurons respond selectively to stimulus orientation. The emergence of orientation selectivity in V1 has long served as a model for investigating cortical(More)
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an opioid-related neuropeptide that is widely distributed in limbic regions of the brain. After intracerebroventricular (icv) injections in rodents, N/OFQ produces elevations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and has been reported to produce both anxiogenic and anxiolytic actions. We examined the(More)
Fractal analysis methods are used to quantify the complexity of the human cerebral cortex. Many recent studies have focused on high resolution three-dimensional reconstructions of either the outer (pial) surface of the brain or the junction between the gray and white matter, but ignore the structure between these surfaces. This study uses a new method to(More)
Using an iterative design process, we designed and evaluated a system for college students to encourage the development and maintenance of healthy diet and exercise habits. The system has three components: a camera phone application to support photographic diet and exercise journaling, an automatic workout tracking application for exercise machines in the(More)
Self-injury is a devastating, maladaptive behavior disorder that is common in developmental disabilities and is comorbid with numerous psychiatric disorders. Examples of self-injurious behavior (SIB) include head-banging, self-biting, and self-punching. The neurochemical basis of SIB is unknown; however, many different classes of drugs are prescribed (e.g.,(More)
BACKGROUND HIV/AIDS and Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) are contemporary epidemics associated with significant social stigma in which communities affected suffer from social rejection, violence, and diminished quality of life. OBJECTIVE To compare and contrast stigma related to HIV/AIDS and EVD, and strategically think how lessons learned from HIV stigma can be(More)
INTRODUCTION Approximately 291 million women worldwide are HPV DNA carriers. Studies have indicated that having multiple sexual partners may lead to higher HPV transmission. Thus female sex workers (FSWs) may be at greater risk of infection compared to the general population. Herein we review publications with data on FSW cervical HPV test results. We also(More)
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. Incidence rates of HPV infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are well documented and are several-fold higher than among HIV-uninfected individuals. Few studies have demonstrated an increased risk for acquiring HIV(More)
BACKGROUND Sexual behaviour and sexual practices affect the risk for acquisition and transmission of HIV infection. This study tries to identify differences in sexual behaviour (condom use with non-marital partners, multiple sexual partnerships transactional sex and age mixing in sexual relationships), sexual practices (oral, anal and vagina sex), and(More)
A dolescents worldwide often face tremendous sexual violence; a growing problem and a leading reproductive health concern. The prevalence of this violence ranges between 15 and 40% in sub-Saharan Africa, with studies showing rates of sexual coercion and abuse among female adolescents in Nigeria between 11 and 55% (1, 2). Little is known about the impact of(More)