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Recent experimental evidence suggests that transcellular propagation of fibrillar protein aggregates drives the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. This phenomenon is now well described in cell and animal models and involves the release of protein aggregates into the extracellular space. Free aggregates then enter neighboring(More)
Aggregation of the microtubule associated protein Tau is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementia. In Alzheimer disease, Tau pathology spreads progressively throughout the brain, possibly along existing neural networks. However, it is still unclear how the propagation of Tau misfolding(More)
Although tau is a cytoplasmic protein, it is also found in brain extracellular fluids, e.g., CSF. Recent findings suggest that aggregated tau can be transferred between cells and extracellular tau aggregates might mediate spread of tau pathology. Despite these data, details of whether tau is normally released into the brain interstitial fluid (ISF), its(More)
Transcellular propagation of protein aggregates, or proteopathic seeds, may drive the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. In tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease, this model predicts that tau seeds propagate pathology through the brain via cell-cell transfer in neural networks. The critical role of tau seeding activity is(More)
Tau amyloid assemblies propagate aggregation from the outside to the inside of a cell, which may mediate progression of the tauopathies. The critical size of Tau assemblies, or "seeds," responsible for this activity is currently unknown, but this could be important for the design of effective therapies. We studied recombinant Tau repeat domain (RD) and Tau(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW New research on the mechanisms of neurodegeneration highlights parallels between prion disease pathogenesis and other, more common disorders not typically thought to be infectious. This involves propagation of protein misfolding from cell to cell by templated conformational change. This review focuses on the cell biology that underlies(More)
Increasing evidence supports transcellular propagation of toxic protein aggregates, or proteopathic seeds, as a mechanism for the initiation and progression of pathology in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and the related tauopathies. The potentially critical role of tau seeds in disease progression strongly supports the(More)
Huntington disease is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative condition caused by polyglutamine expansion in the N terminus of the huntingtin protein (Htt). The first 17 amino acids (N17) of Htt play a key role in regulating its toxicity and aggregation. Both nuclear export and cytoplasm retention functions have been ascribed to N17. We have determined(More)
Prions derived from the prion protein (PrP) were first characterized as infectious agents that transmit pathology between individuals. However, the majority of cases of neurodegeneration caused by PrP prions occur sporadically. Proteins that self-assemble as cross-beta sheet amyloids are a defining pathological feature of infectious prion disorders and all(More)
Work over the past 4 years indicates that multiple proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, especially Tau and α-synuclein, can propagate aggregates between cells in a prion-like manner. This means that once an aggregate is formed it can escape the cell of origin, contact a connected cell, enter the cell, and induce further aggregation via(More)