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Recent experimental evidence suggests that transcellular propagation of fibrillar protein aggregates drives the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. This phenomenon is now well described in cell and animal models and involves the release of protein aggregates into the extracellular space. Free aggregates then enter neighboring(More)
Although tau is a cytoplasmic protein, it is also found in brain extracellular fluids, e.g., CSF. Recent findings suggest that aggregated tau can be transferred between cells and extracellular tau aggregates might mediate spread of tau pathology. Despite these data, details of whether tau is normally released into the brain interstitial fluid (ISF), its(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW New research on the mechanisms of neurodegeneration highlights parallels between prion disease pathogenesis and other, more common disorders not typically thought to be infectious. This involves propagation of protein misfolding from cell to cell by templated conformational change. This review focuses on the cell biology that underlies(More)
Aggregation of the microtubule associated protein Tau is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementia. In Alzheimer disease, Tau pathology spreads progressively throughout the brain, possibly along existing neural networks. However, it is still unclear how the propagation of Tau misfolding(More)
The HCN family of ion channel subunits underlies the currents I(f) in heart and I(h) and I(q) in the nervous system. In the present study, we demonstrate that minK-related peptide 1 (MiRP1) is a beta subunit for the HCN family. As such, it enhances protein and current expression as well as accelerating the kinetics of activation. Because MiRP1 also(More)
Transcellular propagation of protein aggregates, or proteopathic seeds, may drive the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. In tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease, this model predicts that tau seeds propagate pathology through the brain via cell-cell transfer in neural networks. The critical role of tau seeding activity is(More)
This study is the first to demonstrate that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an immune system 'inflammatory' cytokine that is released by the developing otocyst, plays a role in regulating early innervation of the mouse and chick inner ear. We demonstrate that MIF is a major bioactive component of the previously uncharacterized otocyst-derived(More)
Previously, a number of analgesic agonists, when administered i.c.v. to mice, were shown putatively to activate the release of dynorphin A (1-17) (Dyn A) in the spinal cord. Whether released endogenously or administered i.t., Dyn A produces an antianalgesic action against i.t. administered morphine. In the present study, the opioid antagonists, naloxone and(More)
Morphine given intracerebroventricularly releases spinal dynorphin A (Dyn) in mice. The present study was undertaken to determine whether morphine given intrathecally (IT) released Dyn. We demonstrated that the antinociceptive action of morphine was enhanced by procedures that are known to attenuate Dyn action. First, coadministration of the opiate(More)
Dynorphin A(1-17) given intrathecally releases spinal cholecystokinin to produce an antianalgesic action against spinal morphine in the tail-flick test in CD-1 mice. The present study showed that following the cholecystokinin step, a delta(2)-opioid inverse agonist action of Leu-enkephalin (LE), was involved. Pretreatment with intrathecal LE antiserum(More)