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Recent experimental evidence suggests that transcellular propagation of fibrillar protein aggregates drives the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. This phenomenon is now well described in cell and animal models and involves the release of protein aggregates into the extracellular space. Free aggregates then enter neighboring(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW New research on the mechanisms of neurodegeneration highlights parallels between prion disease pathogenesis and other, more common disorders not typically thought to be infectious. This involves propagation of protein misfolding from cell to cell by templated conformational change. This review focuses on the cell biology that underlies(More)
Tau amyloid assemblies propagate aggregation from the outside to the inside of a cell, which may mediate progression of the tauopathies. The critical size of Tau assemblies, or "seeds," responsible for this activity is currently unknown, but this could be important for the design of effective therapies. We studied recombinant Tau repeat domain (RD) and Tau(More)
Although tau is a cytoplasmic protein, it is also found in brain extracellular fluids, e.g., CSF. Recent findings suggest that aggregated tau can be transferred between cells and extracellular tau aggregates might mediate spread of tau pathology. Despite these data, details of whether tau is normally released into the brain interstitial fluid (ISF), its(More)
Aggregation of the microtubule associated protein Tau is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementia. In Alzheimer disease, Tau pathology spreads progressively throughout the brain, possibly along existing neural networks. However, it is still unclear how the propagation of Tau misfolding(More)
Transcellular propagation of protein aggregates, or proteopathic seeds, may drive the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. In tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease, this model predicts that tau seeds propagate pathology through the brain via cell-cell transfer in neural networks. The critical role of tau seeding activity is(More)
This study is the first to demonstrate that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an immune system 'inflammatory' cytokine that is released by the developing otocyst, plays a role in regulating early innervation of the mouse and chick inner ear. We demonstrate that MIF is a major bioactive component of the previously uncharacterized otocyst-derived(More)
Prions derived from the prion protein (PrP) were first characterized as infectious agents that transmit pathology between individuals. However, the majority of cases of neurodegeneration caused by PrP prions occur sporadically. Proteins that self-assemble as cross-beta sheet amyloids are a defining pathological feature of infectious prion disorders and all(More)
A new protocol suggests that patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are a viable source of tissue for organ transplantation. However, multiple lines of evidence suggest that many neurodegenerative diseases, including ALS, might progress due to transcellular propagation of protein aggregation among neurons. Transmission of the disease state from(More)
Weight loss and reduction in specific activity of cytochrome oxidase of both red (soleus) and white muscles (gastrocnemius and plantaris) of the rat was greatest 5 days after sciatic nerve crush (p less than 0.001) and then became minimal. In neither was there a significant, concomitant loss of protein. By 19 days, the specific activity of cytochrome(More)