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We investigated the hypothesis that species differences in paternal care in birds may result from differences in concentrations of circulating testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL). Concentrations of plasma T and PRL were compared in breeding Blue-headed Vireos (Vireo solitarius) and Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus), passerine congeners with biparental and(More)
Natural variation in circulating testosterone is thought to play a role in creating inter- and intraspecific variation in paternal care in birds. Experimental elevation of plasma testosterone in males has reduced rates of male care in many species. However, a small number of studies suggest that male care is not inhibited by testosterone when there appears(More)
Changes in androgen levels can alter the structure of motoneurons in the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB), a motor nucleus that innervates perineal muscles involved in copulatory behavior. While sexual activity can alter androgen levels in normal males, it has no effect on SNB motoneuron soma size or dendritic morphology (Beversdorf, Kurz, and(More)
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