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In this study, we have assessed the validity and reliability of an automated labeling system that we have developed for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on magnetic resonance images into gyral based regions of interest (ROIs). Using a dataset of 40 MRI scans we manually identified 34 cortical ROIs in each of the individual hemispheres. This information(More)
The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association charged a workgroup with the task of revising the 1984 criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. The workgroup sought to ensure that the revised criteria would be flexible enough to be used by both general healthcare providers without access to neuropsychological testing, advanced(More)
The entorhinal cortex (EC) plays a crucial role as a gateway connecting the neocortex and the hippocampal formation. Layer II of the EC gives rise to the perforant pathway, the major source of the excitatory input to the hippocampus, and layer IV receives a major hippocampal efferent projection. The EC is affected severely in Alzheimer disease (AD), likely(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with neurodegeneration in vulnerable limbic and heteromodal regions of the cerebral cortex, detectable in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. It is not clear whether abnormalities of cortical anatomy in AD can be reliably measured across different subject samples, how closely they track symptoms, and whether they(More)
The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) performed a genome-wide association study of late-onset Alzheimer disease using a three-stage design consisting of a discovery stage (stage 1) and two replication stages (stages 2 and 3). Both joint analysis and meta-analysis approaches were used. We obtained genome-wide significant results at MS4A4A(More)
An impairment of energy metabolism may underlie slow excitotoxic neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases. We therefore examined the effects of intrastriatal, subacute systemic, or chronic systemic administration of the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) in rats. Following intrastriatal injection 3-NP produced dose-dependent striatal(More)
The distribution of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and neuritic plaques (NPs) was mapped in 39 cortical areas of 11 brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whole hemisphere blocks were embedded in polyethylene glycol (Carbowax), sectioned coronally, and stained with thioflavin S and thionin. The densities of NFTs and NPs were assessed using a(More)
An increased prevalence of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon 4 allele exists in late onset familial Alzheimer's disease. We found, in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, that 62% of patients possessed an ApoE-epsilon 4 allele, compared with 20% of controls. ApoE-epsilon 4/4 patients had more senile plaques (SPs) than epsilon 3/3 patients. ApoE immunoreactivity of(More)
The transmembrane protein CD33 is a sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin that regulates innate immunity but has no known functions in the brain. We have previously shown that the CD33 gene is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we observed increased expression of CD33 in microglial cells in AD brain. The minor allele of the CD33 SNP(More)
The secreted form of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) containing the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) domain, also called protease nexin II, is internalized and degraded by cells. We show that the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP) is responsible for the endocytosis of secreted APP. APPs770 degradation is inhibited by an LRP(More)