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We used magnetic resonance imaging and cortical matching algorithms to map gray matter density (GMD) in 176 normal individuals ranging in age from 7 to 87 years. We found a significant, nonlinear decline in GMD with age, which was most rapid between 7 and about 60 years, over dorsal frontal and parietal association cortices on both the lateral and(More)
OBJECTIVE Mutual information provides a measure of both the linear and nonlinear statistical dependencies between two time series. Cross-mutual information (CMI) is used to quantify the information transmitted from one time series to another, while auto mutual information (AMI) in a time series estimates how much on average the value of the time series can(More)
Functional connectivity among brain regions has been investigated via an analysis of correlations between regional signal fluctuations recorded in magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in a steady state. In comparison with studies of functional connectivity that utilize task manipulations, the analysis of correlations in steady state data is less(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of this study was to model the functional connectivity of the neural systems that subserve attention and impulse control. Proper performance of the Stroop Word-Color Interference Task requires both attention and impulse control. METHODS Word-color interference was studied in 34 normal adult subjects using functional magnetic resonance(More)
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of self-regulatory control across development in healthy individuals performing the Stroop interference task. Proper performance of the task requires the engagement of self-regulatory control to inhibit an automatized response (reading) in favor of another, less(More)
CONTEXT Preterm infants have a high prevalence of long-term cognitive and behavioral disturbances. However, it is not known whether the stresses associated with premature birth disrupt regionally specific brain maturation or whether abnormalities in brain structure contribute to cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVE To determine whether regional brain volumes(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices are implicated in disturbances of attention, cognition, and impulse regulation in bipolar disorder. Acute episodes have been associated with dysfunction in these brain regions, and more enduring trait-related dysfunction has been implicated by volumetric and cellular abnormalities in(More)
Here we report on detailed three-dimensional quantitative maps of brain surface and gray matter density asymmetry patterns during normal adolescent development and show how these anatomical features of the brain are disrupted as a result of prenatal exposure to large quantities of alcohol. We studied two independent samples of normally developing children,(More)
Spanning functions from the simplest reflex arc to complex cognitive processes, neural circuits have diverse functional roles. In the cerebral cortex, functional domains such as visual processing, attention, memory, and cognitive control rely on the development of distinct yet interconnected sets of anatomically distributed cortical and subcortical regions.(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated whether the functional abnormalities in prefrontal systems observed in adult bipolar disorder are manifested in adolescents with this illness. METHOD Ten adolescents with bipolar disorder and 10 healthy comparison subjects participated in a color-naming Stroop task during event-related functional magnetic resonance(More)