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We used magnetic resonance imaging and cortical matching algorithms to map gray matter density (GMD) in 176 normal individuals ranging in age from 7 to 87 years. We found a significant, nonlinear decline in GMD with age, which was most rapid between 7 and about 60 years, over dorsal frontal and parietal association cortices on both the lateral and(More)
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of self-regulatory control across development in healthy individuals performing the Stroop interference task. Proper performance of the task requires the engagement of self-regulatory control to inhibit an automatized response (reading) in favor of another, less(More)
Here we report on detailed three-dimensional quantitative maps of brain surface and gray matter density asymmetry patterns during normal adolescent development and show how these anatomical features of the brain are disrupted as a result of prenatal exposure to large quantities of alcohol. We studied two independent samples of normally developing children,(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices are implicated in disturbances of attention, cognition, and impulse regulation in bipolar disorder. Acute episodes have been associated with dysfunction in these brain regions, and more enduring trait-related dysfunction has been implicated by volumetric and cellular abnormalities in(More)
BACKGROUND The purported functions of medial temporal lobe structures suggest their involvement in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Previous reports of abnormalities in the volume of the amygdala and hippocampus in patients with BD have been inconsistent in their findings and limited to adult samples. Appreciation of whether volumetric(More)
Functional connectivity among brain regions has been investigated via an analysis of correlations between regional signal fluctuations recorded in magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in a steady state. In comparison with studies of functional connectivity that utilize task manipulations, the analysis of correlations in steady state data is less(More)
BACKGROUND Results of structural brain imaging studies of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have shown subtle reductions in total brain volume and in volumes of the right frontal lobe and caudate nucleus. Although various conventional volumetric and voxel-based methods of image analysis have been used in these studies, regional brain(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare regional brain volumes measured in term and preterm infants, and to correlate regional volumes with measures of neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS High-contrast, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 10 preterm and 14 term infants who were scanned near term. The cerebrum was segmented into cortical gray(More)
Spanning functions from the simplest reflex arc to complex cognitive processes, neural circuits have diverse functional roles. In the cerebral cortex, functional domains such as visual processing, attention, memory, and cognitive control rely on the development of distinct yet interconnected sets of anatomically distributed cortical and subcortical regions.(More)
CONTEXT Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE To study the morphology of the hippocampus and amygdala in children with ADHD. (More)