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We used magnetic resonance imaging and cortical matching algorithms to map gray matter density (GMD) in 176 normal individuals ranging in age from 7 to 87 years. We found a significant, nonlinear decline in GMD with age, which was most rapid between 7 and about 60 years, over dorsal frontal and parietal association cortices on both the lateral and(More)
OBJECTIVE Mutual information provides a measure of both the linear and nonlinear statistical dependencies between two time series. Cross-mutual information (CMI) is used to quantify the information transmitted from one time series to another, while auto mutual information (AMI) in a time series estimates how much on average the value of the time series can(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of this study was to model the functional connectivity of the neural systems that subserve attention and impulse control. Proper performance of the Stroop Word-Color Interference Task requires both attention and impulse control. METHODS Word-color interference was studied in 34 normal adult subjects using functional magnetic resonance(More)
Functional connectivity among brain regions has been investigated via an analysis of correlations between regional signal fluctuations recorded in magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in a steady state. In comparison with studies of functional connectivity that utilize task manipulations, the analysis of correlations in steady state data is less(More)
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of self-regulatory control across development in healthy individuals performing the Stroop interference task. Proper performance of the task requires the engagement of self-regulatory control to inhibit an automatized response (reading) in favor of another, less(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices are implicated in disturbances of attention, cognition, and impulse regulation in bipolar disorder. Acute episodes have been associated with dysfunction in these brain regions, and more enduring trait-related dysfunction has been implicated by volumetric and cellular abnormalities in(More)
BACKGROUND Results of structural brain imaging studies of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have shown subtle reductions in total brain volume and in volumes of the right frontal lobe and caudate nucleus. Although various conventional volumetric and voxel-based methods of image analysis have been used in these studies, regional brain(More)
CONTEXT Preterm infants have a high prevalence of long-term cognitive and behavioral disturbances. However, it is not known whether the stresses associated with premature birth disrupt regionally specific brain maturation or whether abnormalities in brain structure contribute to cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVE To determine whether regional brain volumes(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated whether the functional abnormalities in prefrontal systems observed in adult bipolar disorder are manifested in adolescents with this illness. METHOD Ten adolescents with bipolar disorder and 10 healthy comparison subjects participated in a color-naming Stroop task during event-related functional magnetic resonance(More)
In this study we have attempted to define the neural circuits differentially activated by cognitive interference. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify areas of the brain that are activated by the Stroop word-color task in two experiments. In the first experiment, we used infrequent, incongruent colored word stimuli(More)