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Examination of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOC) in single, mechanically skinned skeletal muscle cells by confocal microscopy shows that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor acts as a sarcoplasmic reticulum [Ca(2+)] sensor and mediates SOC by physical coupling without playing a key role in Ca(2+) release from internal stores, as is the case(More)
The volume of the extracellular compartment (tubular system) within intact muscle fibres from cane toad and rat was measured under various conditions using confocal microscopy. Under physiological conditions at rest, the fractional volume of the tubular system (t-sys(Vol)) was 1.38 +/- 0.09 % (n = 17), 1.41 +/- 0.09 % (n = 12) and 0.83 +/- 0.07 % (n = 12)(More)
A method was developed that allows conversion of changes in maximum Ca(2+)-dependent fluorescence of a fixed amount of fluo-3 into volume changes of the fluo-3-containing solution. This method was then applied to investigate by confocal microscopy the osmotic properties of the sealed tubular (t-) system of toad and rat mechanically skinned fibers in which a(More)
Loss of granule content during exocytosis requires the opening of a fusion pore between the secretory granule and plasma membrane. In a variety of secretory cells, this fusion pore has now been shown to subsequently close. However, it is still unclear how pore closure is physiologically regulated and contentious as to how closure relates to granule content(More)
Ca2+ signals, produced by Ca2+ release from cellular stores, switch metabolic responses inside cells. In muscle, Ca2+ sparks locally exhibit the rapid start and termination of the cell-wide signal. By imaging Ca2+ inside the store using shifted excitation and emission ratioing of fluorescence, a surprising observation was made: Depletion during sparks or(More)
BACKGROUND In dystrophic skeletal muscle, osmotic stimuli somehow relieve inhibitory control of dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR) on spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum elementary Ca(2+) release events (ECRE) in high Ca(2+) external environments. Such 'uncontrolled' Ca(2+) sparks were suggested to act as dystrophic signals. They may be related to(More)
Intracellular calcium signals regulate multiple cellular functions. They depend on release of Ca2+ from cellular stores into the cytosol, a process that appears to be tightly controlled by changes in [Ca2+] within the store. A method to image free [Ca2+] within cellular organelles was devised, which provided the first quantitative confocal images of [Ca2+](More)
Mammalian skeletal muscle fibres possess a tubular (t-) system that consists of regularly spaced transverse elements which are also connected in the longitudinal direction. This tubular network provides a pathway for the propagation of action potentials (APs) both radially and longitudinally within the fibre, but little is known about the actual radial and(More)
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is an important mechanism in virtually all cells. In adult skeletal muscle, this mechanism is highly specialized for the rapid delivery of Ca(2+) from the transverse tubule into the junctional cleft during periods of depleting Ca(2+) release. In dystrophic muscle fibers, SOCE may be a source of Ca(2+) overload, leading to(More)
Recent findings suggest that Notch-1 signaling contributes to neuronal death in ischemic stroke, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a global regulator of cellular responses to hypoxia, can interact with Notch and modulate its signaling during hypoxic stress. Here we show that Notch signaling interacts with the(More)