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Recent findings suggest that Notch-1 signaling contributes to neuronal death in ischemic stroke, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a global regulator of cellular responses to hypoxia, can interact with Notch and modulate its signaling during hypoxic stress. Here we show that Notch signaling interacts with the(More)
Ca2+ signals, produced by Ca2+ release from cellular stores, switch metabolic responses inside cells. In muscle, Ca2+ sparks locally exhibit the rapid start and termination of the cell-wide signal. By imaging Ca2+ inside the store using shifted excitation and emission ratioing of fluorescence, a surprising observation was made: Depletion during sparks or(More)
abstract Ca 2 ϩ and Mg 2 ϩ are important mediators and regulators of intracellular Ca 2 ϩ signaling in muscle. The effects of changes of cytosolic [Ca 2 ϩ ] or [Mg 2 ϩ ] on elementary Ca 2 ϩ release events were determined, as functions of concentration and time, in single fast-twitch permeabilized fibers of rat and frog. Ca 2 ϩ sparks were identified and(More)
BACKGROUND In dystrophic skeletal muscle, osmotic stimuli somehow relieve inhibitory control of dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR) on spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum elementary Ca(2+) release events (ECRE) in high Ca(2+) external environments. Such 'uncontrolled' Ca(2+) sparks were suggested to act as dystrophic signals. They may be related to(More)
To signal cell responses, Ca(2+) is released from storage through intracellular Ca(2+) channels. Unlike most plasmalemmal channels, these are clustered in quasi-crystalline arrays, which should endow them with unique properties. Two distinct patterns of local activation of Ca(2+) release were revealed in images of Ca(2+) sparks in permeabilized cells of(More)
Ephrin (Eph) signaling within the central nervous system is known to modulate axon guidance, synaptic plasticity, and to promote long-term potentiation. We investigated the potential involvement of EphA2 receptors in ischemic stroke-induced brain inflammation in a mouse model of focal stroke. Cerebral ischemia was induced in male C57Bl6/J wild-type (WT) and(More)
To activate skeletal muscle contraction, action potentials must be sensed by dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) in the T tubule, which signal the Ca(2+) release channels or ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to open. We demonstrate here an inhibitory effect of the T tubule on the production of sparks of Ca(2+) release. Murine(More)
A method was developed that allows conversion of changes in maximum Ca(2+)-dependent fluorescence of a fixed amount of fluo-3 into volume changes of the fluo-3-containing solution. This method was then applied to investigate by confocal microscopy the osmotic properties of the sealed tubular (t-) system of toad and rat mechanically skinned fibers in which a(More)
Mammalian skeletal muscle fibres possess a tubular (t-) system that consists of regularly spaced transverse elements which are also connected in the longitudinal direction. This tubular network provides a pathway for the propagation of action potentials (APs) both radially and longitudinally within the fibre, but little is known about the actual radial and(More)
In skeletal muscle of amphibians, the cell-wide cytosolic release of calcium that enables contraction in response to an action potential appears to be built of Ca2+ sparks. The mechanism that rapidly terminates this release was investigated by studying the termination of Ca2+ release underlying sparks. In groups of thousands of sparks occurring(More)