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Evidence for active DNA demethylation in vertebrates is accumulating, but the mechanisms and enzymes remain unclear. Using zebrafish embryos we provide evidence for 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) removal in vivo via the coupling of a 5-meC deaminase (AID, which converts 5-meC to thymine) and a G:T mismatch-specific thymine glycosylase (Mbd4). The injection of(More)
Histone variants help specialize chromatin regions; however, their impact on transcriptional regulation is largely unknown. Here, we determined the genome-wide localization and dynamics of Htz1, the yeast histone H2A variant. Htz1 localizes to hundreds of repressed/basal Pol II promoters and prefers TATA-less promoters. Specific Htz1 deposition requires the(More)
Dynamic regulation of diverse nuclear processes is intimately linked to covalent modifications of chromatin. Much attention has focused on methylation at lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4), owing to its association with euchromatic genomic regions. H3K4 can be mono-, di- or tri-methylated. Trimethylated H3K4 (H3K4me3) is preferentially detected at active genes,(More)
A novel 15-subunit complex with the capacity to remodel the structure of chromatin, termed RSC, has been isolated from S. cerevisiae on the basis of homology to the SWI/SNF complex. At least three RSC subunits are related to SWI/SNF polypeptides: Sth1p, Rsc6p, and Rsc8p are significantly similar to Swi2/Snf2p, Swp73p, and Swi3p, respectively, and were(More)
RSC is an essential 15 protein nucleosome-remodeling complex from S. cerevisiae. We have identified two closely related RSC members, Rsc1 and Rsc2. Biochemical analysis revealed Rsc1 and Rsc2 in distinct complexes, defining two forms of RSC. Genetic analysis has shown that Rsc1 and Rsc2 possess shared and unique functions. Rsc1 and Rsc2 each contain two(More)
Because nucleosomes are widely replaced by protamine in mature human sperm, the epigenetic contributions of sperm chromatin to embryo development have been considered highly limited. Here we show that the retained nucleosomes are significantly enriched at loci of developmental importance, including imprinted gene clusters, microRNA clusters, HOX gene(More)
Kss1 and Fus3 are mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs or ERKs), and Ste7 is their activating MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK), in the pheromone response pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To investigate the potential role of specific interactions between these enzymes during signaling, their ability to associate with each other was examined both in solution and(More)
Chromatin remodeling complexes perform central roles in transcriptional regulation. Here, we identify Rsc3 and Rsc30 as novel components of the essential yeast remodeler RSC complex. Rsc3 and Rsc30 function requires their zinc cluster domain, a known site-specific DNA binding motif. RSC3 is essential, and rsc3 Ts- mutants display a G2/M cell cycle arrest(More)
The extent and biological impact of RNA cytosine methylation are poorly understood, in part owing to limitations of current techniques for determining the targets of RNA methyltransferases. Here we describe 5-azacytidine-mediated RNA immunoprecipitation (Aza-IP), a technique that exploits the covalent bond formed between an RNA methyltransferase and the(More)