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This double-blind, random-assignment study contrasted the relative efficacy of bilateral and unilateral right ECT with a low-dose titration procedure. In 52 patients with primary major depressive disorder, bilateral ECT was markedly superior in short-term symptom reduction to unilateral right ECT. The two conditions did not differ in the duration of(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). While the primary symptoms of MS are losses of sensory and motor functions, it is now recognized that chronic pain is also a major concern affecting between 50% and 80% of MS patients. To date, however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of(More)
Neuropoietic cytokines are well known for their role in the control of neuronal, glial and immune responses to injury or disease. Since this discovery, it has emerged that several of these proteins are also involved in nervous system development, in particular in the regulation of neurogenesis and stem cell fate. Recent data indicate that these proteins(More)
IL-1β and TNF are potential targets in the management of neuropathic pain after injury. However, the importance of the IL-1 and TNF systems for peripheral nerve regeneration and the mechanisms by which these cytokines mediate effects are to be fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β and TNF are rapidly upregulated in the(More)
Injury in the peripheral or central nervous systems causes a significant rise in the levels of the pleiotropic cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). This increase influences cell survival, reactive gliosis and inflammatory responses. Since prior work has focused primarily on peripheral nerve and brain, little is known about the role of LIF in the(More)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which neuropathic pain is now recognized as a major symptom. To date, few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain in MS. Recently we showed that in a chronic-relapsing animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and the animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are both accompanied by motor and non-motor symptoms. Pathological changes in the activities of key neurotransmitters likely underlie many of these symptoms. We have previously described disturbances in the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT/serotonin),(More)
A sample of patients with endogenous depression (RDC), who had only a partial response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), was identified from a larger group of patients participating in a study of the affective and cognitive effects of low-dose titrated ECT. Using symptom scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, subscales were constructed to(More)
We have characterized spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors that develop in a model of severe spinal contusion injury using two commonly used strains of mice. Using the Infinite Horizon Tissue Impactor to produce these contusion injuries, we were able to set strict limits on the injury parameters (i.e., force of impact and tissue displacement). This helps(More)
After clinical response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 58 patients with major depressive disorder were followed for 1 year or until relapse. The rate of relapse was substantially higher in patients who had failed adequate antidepressant medication trials prior to ECT than in patients not determined to be medication resistant. Adequacy of post-ECT(More)