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Many damage-sensing neurons express tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant voltage-gated sodium channels. Here we examined the role of the sensory-neuron-specific (SNS) TTX-resistant sodium channel alpha subunit in nociception and pain by constructing sns-null mutant mice. These mice expressed only TTX-sensitive sodium currents on step depolarizations from normal(More)
The tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel Nav 1.8 is expressed only in nociceptive sensory neurons. This channel has been proposed to contribute significantly to the sensitization of primary sensory neurons after injury. We have studied the nociceptive behaviours of mice carrying a null mutation in the Nav 1.8 gene (Nav 1.8 -/-) in models of(More)
This double-blind, random-assignment study contrasted the relative efficacy of bilateral and unilateral right ECT with a low-dose titration procedure. In 52 patients with primary major depressive disorder, bilateral ECT was markedly superior in short-term symptom reduction to unilateral right ECT. The two conditions did not differ in the duration of(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). While the primary symptoms of MS are losses of sensory and motor functions, it is now recognized that chronic pain is also a major concern affecting between 50% and 80% of MS patients. To date, however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of(More)
Neuropoietic cytokines are well known for their role in the control of neuronal, glial and immune responses to injury or disease. Since this discovery, it has emerged that several of these proteins are also involved in nervous system development, in particular in the regulation of neurogenesis and stem cell fate. Recent data indicate that these proteins(More)
IL-1β and TNF are potential targets in the management of neuropathic pain after injury. However, the importance of the IL-1 and TNF systems for peripheral nerve regeneration and the mechanisms by which these cytokines mediate effects are to be fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β and TNF are rapidly upregulated in the(More)
Injury in the peripheral or central nervous systems causes a significant rise in the levels of the pleiotropic cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). This increase influences cell survival, reactive gliosis and inflammatory responses. Since prior work has focused primarily on peripheral nerve and brain, little is known about the role of LIF in the(More)
The neuropeptide galanin has been identified as a potential neurotransmitter/neuromodulator within the central nervous system. In the present study, the role of endogenous galanin in nociceptive processing in the nervous system has been analysed by using mice carrying a targeted mutation in the galanin gene. Supporting this, the effect of chronic(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and the animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are both accompanied by motor and non-motor symptoms. Pathological changes in the activities of key neurotransmitters likely underlie many of these symptoms. We have previously described disturbances in the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT/serotonin),(More)
A sample of patients with endogenous depression (RDC), who had only a partial response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), was identified from a larger group of patients participating in a study of the affective and cognitive effects of low-dose titrated ECT. Using symptom scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, subscales were constructed to(More)