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Neuropoietic cytokines are well known for their role in the control of neuronal, glial and immune responses to injury or disease. Since this discovery, it has emerged that several of these proteins are also involved in nervous system development, in particular in the regulation of neurogenesis and stem cell fate. Recent data indicate that these proteins(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). While the primary symptoms of MS are losses of sensory and motor functions, it is now recognized that chronic pain is also a major concern affecting between 50% and 80% of MS patients. To date, however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of(More)
IL-1β and TNF are potential targets in the management of neuropathic pain after injury. However, the importance of the IL-1 and TNF systems for peripheral nerve regeneration and the mechanisms by which these cytokines mediate effects are to be fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that mRNA and protein levels of IL-1β and TNF are rapidly upregulated in the(More)
Injury in the peripheral or central nervous systems causes a significant rise in the levels of the pleiotropic cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). This increase influences cell survival, reactive gliosis and inflammatory responses. Since prior work has focused primarily on peripheral nerve and brain, little is known about the role of LIF in the(More)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which neuropathic pain is now recognized as a major symptom. To date, few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain in MS. Recently we showed that in a chronic-relapsing animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and the animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are both accompanied by motor and non-motor symptoms. Pathological changes in the activities of key neurotransmitters likely underlie many of these symptoms. We have previously described disturbances in the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT/serotonin),(More)
Spinal cord contusion injury in rodents is widely used as a model for spinal cord trauma in humans. Several biomechanical variables can influence injury outcome. In this work, we have assessed the influence of impact force and displacement of the spinal cord at the time of contusion injury on the severity of locomotor deficits and histopathological changes.(More)
We have characterized spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors that develop in a model of severe spinal contusion injury using two commonly used strains of mice. Using the Infinite Horizon Tissue Impactor to produce these contusion injuries, we were able to set strict limits on the injury parameters (i.e., force of impact and tissue displacement). This helps(More)
Injury or disease affecting the spinal cord is often accompanied by abnormal, chronic pain. Recent estimates suggest that approximately 60% of patients with multiple sclerosis are affected by significant changes in pain sensitivity or experience ongoing neuropathic pain of unknown etiology. Chronic pain is also a significant concern after direct spinal cord(More)
CNS injury-induced hemorrhage and tissue damage leads to excess iron, which can cause secondary degeneration. The mechanisms that handle this excess iron are not fully understood. We report that spinal cord contusion injury (SCI) in mice induces an "iron homeostatic response" that partially limits iron-catalyzed oxidative damage. We show that ceruloplasmin(More)