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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C and VEGF-D stimulate lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in tissues and tumors by activating the endothelial cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 2 and VEGFR-3. These growth factors are secreted as full-length inactive forms consisting of NH2- and COOH-terminal propeptides and a central VEGF(More)
The clinical symptoms of hemoglobin disorders such as β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia are significantly ameliorated by the persistent expression of γ-globin after birth. This knowledge has driven the discovery of important regulators that silence γ-globin postnatally. Improved understanding of the γ- to β-globin switching mechanism holds the key to(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D is a secreted glycoprotein that induces angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. It consists of a central domain, containing binding sites for VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and VEGFR-3, and N- and C-terminal propeptides. It is secreted from the cell as homodimers of the full-length form that can be proteolytically(More)
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has four inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (5-phosphatase) genes, INP51, INP52, INP53, and INP54, all of which hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate. INP54 encodes a protein of 44 kDa which consists of a 5-phosphatase domain and a C-terminal leucine-rich tail, but lacks the N-terminal SacI domain and(More)
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of secreted glycoproteins are critical inducers of angiogenesis (growth of blood vessels) and lymphangiogenesis (growth of lymphatic vessels). These proteins are attractive therapeutic targets for blocking growth of blood vessels and lymphatics in tumors and thereby inhibiting the growth and spread of(More)
The lymphatic network functions to return fluid, cells and macromolecules to the circulation. Recent characterization of growth factors that control the growth and development of the lymphatics, and markers which specify lymphatic endothelial cells have enhanced our understanding of this system. Members of the VEGF family of factors are key regulators of(More)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (Inp51p, Inp52p, and Inp53p) each contain an N-terminal Sac1 domain, followed by a 5-phosphatase domain and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. Disruption of any two of these 5-phosphatases results in abnormal vacuolar and plasma membrane morphology. We have cloned and characterized the(More)
A greater understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that govern γ-globin expression in humans, especially the switching from γ- to β-globin, which occurs after birth, would help to identify new therapeutic targets for patients with β-hemoglobinopathy. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in γ-globin expression, a novel fluorescent-based cellular(More)
While Cas9 nucleases permit rapid and efficient generation of gene-edited cell lines, the CRISPR-Cas9 system can introduce undesirable "on-target" mutations within the second allele of successfully modified cells via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). To address this, we fused the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) nuclease to a peptide derived from the(More)